Program name What it does
1st2chr prints the first 2 characters of the input
1stchr prints the first character of the input
2dig gets a 2 digit number from the user
DTK Deception ToolKit Deception ToolKit X11 Menu interface
Eterm X11 video terminal emulator
Etsearch X11 text search
IPaddr Get an IP address from the user
WGfixup Repair an installed WhiteGlove File System
WGin Install the CD to a hard disk
WGkillprocs Kill undesirable processes periodically
WGout Remove the installed operating system - leave the data
WGsec Secure the operating environment
WGup Update the hard disk installation
YORN Get a Y or N from the user
a2p Awk to Perl translator
addftinfo add information to troff font files for use with groff
afmtodit create font files for use with groff -Tps
agetty terminal interface for multiple consoles
animate display a sequence of images
ar create, modify, and extract from archives
arch display the processor type for this computer
arp Address Resolution Protocol
arping Ping using ARP packets
arpspoof Spoof ARP addresses
as Assembler
as86 x86 Assembler
atoi Alphanumeric to integer converter (atoi a -> 97)
atoo Alphanumeric to octal converter (atoo a -> d=97 o=141 h=61)
badblocks Search a device for bad blocks
basename Find the base name for a pathname
bash The bash command interpreter
bc An arbitrary precision calculator language
bdftops Convert to postscript
bison A compiler compiler
blackbox The X11 interface used by the bootable CDs
blockdev Call block device ioctls from the command line
bzip2 File compression utility
bzip2recover File compression recovery utility
cal Show a calendar
cardctl PCMCIA card status display
cardmgr PCMCIA card manager for detecting POC cards
cat Concatenate files to the standard output
cdda2wav Convert cdda format to wave format
cdrecord Burn a CD-ROM
cfdisk Curses based disk partition table manipulator
charset Set an ACM for use in one of the G0/G1 charset slots
chattr Change file attributes
chgrp Change group ownership
chkdupexe Check for duplicate executables
chklastlog Check lastlog for anomolies
chkproc Check processes for propriety
chkrootkit Check for known rootkits
chkwtmp Check wtmp file for attack patterns
chmod Change permissions on files
chown Change ownership of files
chroot Change root directory
chsh Change default shell for user
chvt Change foreground virtual terminal
cksum Checksum and count the bytes in a file
clear Clear the screen
clisp Common Lisp implementation Display international times in X11
cmp Compare two files
code Capture the namespace context for a code fragment
col Filter reverse line feeds from input
colcrt Filter nroff output for CRT previewing
colrm Remove columns from a file
column Columnate lists
comm Compare two sorted files line by line
compress Compress files
consolechars Load EGA/VGA console screen font, map, application map
convert Convert between image formats
count Count from one integer to another by increments
cp Copy files
cpan Comprehansive Perl Archive Network
cpp The C PreProcessor
crlf Change files to CRLF output from whatever they used to be
crypto OpenSSL cryptographic library
csplit Split files into sections determined by context lines
ctrlaltdel set Ctrl-Alt-Del function
cucipop Mail pop3 handler
cut Remove sections from each line of files
cytune Tune Cyclades driver parameters
d# Multiply integers
d+ Add integers
da Date and time
dad Date addition
dadd Add integers
date Date and time
dayadd Date addition
db Database create, get, put, hash
dcmp Date comparrison
dd Disk dump
dayadd Date addition
ddate Converts Gregorian dates to Discordian dates
deallocvt Deallocate unused virtual terminals
debugfs Ext2 file system debugger
debugreiserfs Reiser file system debugger
df Disk free space listing
dhcpcd DHCP client daemon
dhcpd DHCP server daemon
dia A diagram drawing program
diff Find differences between two files
diff3 Find differences between three files
dig Detailed DNS queries
digits Input a series of N digits (i.e., digits 3)
dir A pseudonym for 'ls' - list files
dircolors Colorized directory listing setup
dirname Strip non-directory suffix from file name
diskwipe Wipe the contents of a disk out
display Display an image under X11
dmesg Print or control the kernel ring buffer
dnsspoof Spoof DNS packets
dnum Device number?
dollars Input a dollars and cents amount
dprofpp Display perl profile data
dsniff Sniff network packets from Ethernets
dsub Substract integers
dtoo Decimal to octal conversion
du Disk usage statistics
dump_cis Display PCMCIA Card Information Structures
dumpe2fs Dump filesystem information
dumpkeys Dump keyboard translation tables
dvipdf Convert DVI files to PDF format
e2fsck Check an EXT2 filesystem
e2label Change the label on an ext2 filesystem
echo Echo things to the display
ed Line oriented editor
ee Electric Eyes visualizes image files
egrep Print lines matching a pattern
eject Eject the CD-ROM
elvtune I/O elevator tuner
env Show the shell environment variables
eps2eps Convert eps printer files to Postscript
esd Audio device status information
esd-config Configure audio devices
esdcat Get data from audio devices
esdctl Control audio devices
esddsp Audio devices DSP processor
esdfilt Audio devices filter
esdloop Audio devices loopback
esdmon Audio devices monitor
esdplay Audio devices play
esdrec Audio devices record
esdsample Audio devices sampling rate
ethereal Watch ethernet packets graphically from X11
ettercap Capture ethernet packets
exists Check for file/directory existence
expand Convert tabs to spaces
expr Evaluate numerical expressions
ext2online EXT2 file system place online
ext2prepare EXT2 file system preparer
ext2resize EXT2 file system resizer
extract_compressed_fs Extract a compressed file system
fadd Add floating point
faillog Failure log
false Retuen a '0' value
fbset Show and modify frame buffer device settings
fdformat Format a floppy disk
fdisk Partition table editor for hard disks
fgconsole Print the number of the active VT
fgrep Print lines matching a pattern
file Determine file type
find Search a directory hierarchy
find_ethernet Fine ethernets
find_hdd Find hard disk drieves
find_scsi Find SCSI devices
find_usb Find USB devices
finddns Find DNS servers for a hostname
findimages Find graphical; image files Run the finger program on other systems
fix_bs_and_del Fix backspace and delete characters Fix MS Word files
fixresolv Build a new /etc/resolv.conf file (fixresolv > /etc/resolv.conf)
fixtime Fix the time and date using network time protocol
flex Fast lexical analyzer generator
floursheim Search the Internet for content
fmt Simple optimal text formatter
fname Input a filename
fold Wrap each input line to fit in specified width
free Memory usage statistics
fsck File system checker
fsck.ext2 Check EXT2 file system
fsck.ext3 Check ext3 file system
fsck.minix Check minix file system
ftl_check Flash Translation Layer format checker (PC-Flash memory)
ftl_format Flash Translation Layer formatting utility (PC-Flash memory)
ftp File Transfer Protocol program
funzip Filter for extracting from a ZIP archive in a pipe
fuser Identify processes using files or sockets
g++ GNU project C++ Compiler
gawk GNU Awk pattern scanning and processing language
gcc Fnu C Compiler
getent Get entries from administrative database
getopt Get options from command lines
getstyle X11 Style information
gettext Get text from the user
gettextize Get the size of an EXT file system
gpasswd Administer the /etc/group file
gpm Allow text displays to use mice
gprof Display call graph profile data
grep Print lines matching a pattern
grn Groff preprocessor for gremlin files
groff Front end for the groff document formatting system
grolbp Groff driver for Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8 series laser printers).
groups Print the groups a user is in
grpck Verify integrity of group files
grpconv Convert to and from shadow passwords and groups
grpunconv Convert to and from shadow passwords and groups
gs Ghostscript (postscript interpreter and previewer)
gslj Ghostscript to Laserjet converter
gslp Ghostscript to line printer converter
gzexe Compress executable files in place
gzip GNU zip and unzip utility
hdparm Hard disk parameter fetch and set
head Show the beginning of a file
help Provide help (if available)
hexdump Ascii, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump
host DNS lookup utility
hostid Numeric ID of this host
hostname Name of this host
hpftodit Create font description files for groff -Tlj4
httrack Retrieve web sites (Also used by floursheim)
hunt Packet analysis and session interception
hwclock Query and set the hardware clock
icmpenum Enumerate hosts via ICMP probes
iconv Convert between file codings
id User, group, ID program
ide_info Information on the IDE interface
identd The identification daemon
identify Describe format and characteristics of image file(s)
ifconfig Configure IP interface cards
ifdown Shut down IP network interface
ifport Select transceiver type for network interface
ifpromisc Promiscuous mode for ethernet cards
ifup Start up IP network interface
ifuser identify destinations routed to a particular network interface
igawk Gawk with include files
imapd Internet Message Access Protocol server
import Capture X screen and save to a file
inetd Internet daemon master server
info Read Info documents
infocmp Compare or print out terminfo descriptions
insmod Insert loadable kernel module
integer Input an integer from the user
integers Input multiple integers from, the user
ipcalc IP calculator
ipchains IP firewall mechanism
ipcrm Interprocess resource remover
ipcs Information on interprocess communication facilities
ipppd (ISDN) Point to Point Protocol daemon
iptables IP firewall mechanism
isapnp Configure ISA Plug-and-Play devices
isodump Dump an ISO9660 file system
isoinfo Information on an ISO9660 file system
isosize Size of an ISO9660 file system
isovfy Verify an ISO9660 file system
itoa Convert integer value to ASCII character
join Join lines of two files on a common field
kbd_mode Report or set the keyboard mode
kernelversion Report the kernel version
kill Kill processes
killall Kill all processes meeting a given specification
killramdisk Kill the RAM disk
kudzu Configuration change manager
l list files (abbreviation for ls)
last List all login dates and times
lastcomm List last commands typed by users
lastlog List last time each user logged in
ld Loader
less Show files page-by-page and allow search
lftp Better File Transfer Protocol handler than FTP
libsetup Setup libraries from select applications
lineup Line up lines in a file into columns
ll Long version of ls
ln Link files into an executable
loadkeys Load keyboard translation tables
locale Local configuration information
locate Locate a file or program in the system
logger Make entries in the system log
login The program that lets you log into the system
logname Name of user logged in
logoutd Automatic logout daemon
look Display lines beginning with a given string
losetup Setup loopback file systems Setup the line printer
ls List files
lsattr List file attributes
lsdev List devices
lsof List open files associated with processes
lspci List PCI cards and types
ltrace A library call tracer
lynx A text-based Web interface
m4 Macro preprocessor
mailstats Display mail statistics
make Utility to maintain groups of programs
makeinfo Translate Texinfo documents
makemap Make a swap file system
makewhatis Make the whatis database
man Manual entries for most of the programs listed here
math Do aritmetic functions
mawk Pattern scanning and text processing language
mcookie Generate magic cookies for xauth
md5sum MD5 cryptographic checksum generator
me Micro Emacs editor
menu Menu system turns a directory tree into a menu system
mkdir Make directories
mke2fs Make EXT2 file systems
mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
mkfs Make file system
mkfs.bfs Make BFS file system
mkfs.ext2 Make EXT2 file system
mkfs.minix Make Minix file system
mkisofs Make ISO9660 file system
mklost+found Make lost&Found directory
mkmanifest Create a shell script (packing list) to restore Unix filenames
mknod Make a device file
mkpv Creates PV device
mkraid Make a RAID file system
mkreiserfs Make a Reiser fils system
mkswap Make a swap file system
mmroff MROFF reference preprocessor
modinfo Display information about a kernel module
mogrify Transform an image or sequence of images
montage Create a composite image by combining separate images
more Show a file a page at a time (like less)
mount Mount a file system
mouseconfig Configure the mouse (almost never needed)
mozilla Netscape-like web browser
mpg123 Play audio MPEG 1.0/2.0 file (layers 1, 2 and 3)
mtools Utilities to access DOS disks in Unix
mtr Network diagnostic tool (ping and traceroute)
mv Move files
myip Show my primary IP address
mywhois Special version of 'whois'
namei Follow a pathname until a terminal point is found
nasl Network intrusion detection tool
nasm Netwide Assembler - portable 80x86 assembler
nc NetCat - Cat for networks
ncftp Browser program for the File Transfer Protocol
ndisasm Netwide Disassembler - 80x86 binary file disassembler
nessus-setup Setup the Nessus network security scanner
nessusd Run the scanner from X11
net-install-mandrake-8.1 Network installers for other OSs
net-install-redhat-6.2 Network installers for other OSs
net-install-redhat-7.1 Network installers for other OSs
netadd Get a full hostname from the user
netconfig Menu based network configuration program
netdump Dump network packets
netman Network-based manual program
netstat Network usage statistics
newgrp Change groups
nextname Make temporary file name (e.g.,nextname testXXXX)
nice Run a process ot different priority
nl Number lines of files
nm List symbols from object files.
nmap Network mapping utility
nmapfe X11 front end to nmap
nmbd NetBIOS name server
nmblookup NetBIOS name server lookup
nocr Remove CR from files (changes CRLF to LF only)
noctrl Remove control characters from files
nohup Run a process ignoring Hangup (HUP) signals
nolf Remove linefeeds from files
nonull Remove null (0) characters from files
noparity Remove parity bits from filess
noquote Input a line without shell quote characters Remove repetitive lines from a file
npulse Network pulse taking program
nrepsum Eliminate duplicate lines and count how many of each
nslookup Lookup a hostname on a name server
ntop Daemon for port 3000 to get network traffic information
ntop-config Confogure ntop
ntpd Network time protocol daemon
ntpdate Update time by asking remote NTP servers
number Input a real number from the user
o# Octal multiplication
o+ Octal addition
objcopy Copy and translate object files
objdump Display information from object files
od Octal to decminal conversion
oddparity Set the first bit on all bytes
ok Ask for an 'ok' confirmation
oldps Report process status
oneofeach Get a list of different things
onum Get an octal number from the user
oo Open Office
openssl Secure Socket Layer handler
openvt Start a program on a new virtual terminal
otod Convert octal to decimal
pack_cis Compile PCMCIA Card Information Structures
pan X11 mail fetch and send program
parted Partition manipulation program
passwd Change passwords
paste Merge lines of files
pathchk Check whether file names are valid or portable
patmat Pattern matching virus detection
pcinitrd Create a PCMCIA initrd ram disk image
pd Partition table decoder
perl The perl language
perlcc Frontend for perl compiler
perldoc Perl documentation
pic Compile pictures for troff or TeX
pico GUI text editor
pidof Find the process ID of a running program
pilot File system browser in the style of the Pine Composer
pine Email program
ping Send ICMP packets to computers
pinky Lightweight finger program
pivot_root Change the root of the file system
pkill Process killer and signaller
pl2pm Rough tool translates Perl4 .pl files to Perl5 .pm modules
plipconfig Fine tune PLIP device parameters
pnpdump Dump ISA Plug-And-Play devices resource information
pod2html Convert POD files to html
pod2latex Convert POD files to latex
pod2man Convert POD files to man files
pod2text Convert POD files to text files
pod2usage Convert POD files to usage files
podchecker Check POD files
pppd Point to point protocol daemon
pppdump Convert PPP record file to readable format
pr Convert files for the line printer
praliases Display system mail aliases
printenv Print all or part of environment
printf Format and print data
probe Probes for PCI and other bridge hardware
procinfo Display system status gathered from /proc X11-based process manager
ps Process status lister
ps2ascii Convert postscript to ascii
ps2epsi Convert postscript to EPS printer format
ps2pdf Convert postscript to PDF format
psfaddtable Add a Unicode character table to a console font
psfgettable Get the Unicode character table from a console font
psfstriptable Remove embedded Unicode character table from a console font
pstree Show the process table as a tree structure
pstruct Dump C structures as generated from cc -g -S stabs X11-based system administration interface
ptx Produce a permuted index of file contents
pump DHCP interface startup Preview a DVI page in postscript
pwck Verify integrity of password files
pwconv convert to and from shadow password files
pwd Print working directory
pwunconv Convert to and from shadow password files X11 GUI name server lookup program
raidstart Start a RAID array
refer Preprocess bibliographic references for groff
reiserfsck Check a reiser file system
relf Relinefeed a file
relf2 Relinefeed a file another way
relflab Relinefeed a file for label printing
reline Reline a file to 80 columns wide
rename Rename files
renice Change the 'nice' level of a running process
resize2fs EXT2 file system resizer
resize_reiserfs Reiser file system resizer
resizecons Change kernel idea of the console size
rev Reverse lines of a file
rm Remove a file
rmail Readmail
rmdir Remove a directory
rmt Remote magtape protocol module
ro Make mounted file systems read-only (default)
route Update and show packet routing tables
rpcgen RPC protocol compiler
rpcinfo Report RPC information
rpm Red Hat Package Manager
rsync Faster, flexible replacement for rcp
rw Make mounted file systems read-write
s2p Sed to Perl translator
samba Start SMB services
sash Stand-alone shell with built-in commands
say Encrypted chat session talk side of connection
scp SSH copy program
script Record terminal input and output to a file
scsi_info Information on SCSI devices
sdiff Find and merge differences between files interactively
sdns Secure DNS server
sed Stream editor
see Encrypted chat session listen side of connection
sendmail Email send and receivbe client (use for send only)
sens Sensitivity adjustment
seq Like count
service Start and stop system services
setfdprm Set user-provided floppy disk parameters
seticons Sets the icon images used in Window Maker
setkeycodes Load kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping
setleds Set the keyboard leds
setmetamode Define the keyboard meta key handling
setpci Configure PCI devices
setsid Run a program in a new session
setterm Set terminal attributes
setxkbmap Set the keyboard using the X keyboard extensions
sfdisk Partition table manipulator
sftp Secure (SSH) FTP
sftp-server Secure (SSH) FTP server
shasum SHA cryptographic hash checksummer
showcfont Displays all characters in the current screen font
showkey Examine the scan codes and keycodes sent by the keyboard
sing Send packets of various sorts
size Find the memory size of a program if run
skill Report process status
slattach Attach a network interface to a serial line
sleep Sleep for some number of seconds
sln Static ln command
smbclient Windows file sharing client
smbd Windows file sharing daemon
smbmount Mount remote Windows file systems
smbpasswd Set remote Windows file sharing password
smbspool Rig remote Windows printing
smbstatus Status of Windows file sharing
smbtar Back up Windows file shares to tape files
smrsh Restricted shell for sendmail
snice Report process status
sniffit Network traffic sniffer
snort Network sniffer and intrusion deteciton front end
socklist List open sockets
soelim Interpret .so requests in groff input
sort Sort files
splain Perl compiler pragma to force verbose warning diagnostics
split Split a file into parts
sprof Read and display shared object profiling data
ssh Secure Shell encrypted communication client
sshd Secure Shell encrypted communication daemon
ssl Secure Socket Layer handler
startx Start X11 running
strace Trace system calls and signals
strings Extract strings from a file
strip Remove unnecessary text from executables
stty Set tty characteristics
stuff Help file from the PLAC disk
stunnel Universal SSL tunnel
su Switch users
sulogin Single user login
sum Add up a column of numbers
swapon Turn on swapping
swat Remote management of SMB servers
sync Write all not-yet-written content to disks
syslogd System log daemon View system status information (in X11) Postscript printer interface
tac Concatenate and print files in reverse
tack Terminfo action checker
tail Show the end of a file
tar Tape Archiver
tbl Format tables for troff
tcpdump Show network packets to the user
tcpkill Kill an existing TCP connection
tcpspy Watch TCP connections
tcsh Another command interpreter
tct-1.06 The coroner's toolkit
tee Split output to a file and to standard output
telnet Remote access to computers (insecure)
testparm Check an smb.conf configuration file
texi2dvi Convert text to DVi format
tftp Trivial file transfer protocol
tic The terminfo entry-description compiler Show time in parts of the world
timezone Set the time zone
tload Show load average
toe Table of (terminfo) entries
tolower Convert to lower case
top Show processes sorted by CPU usage over time
touch Set the file access date on a file
toupper Convert to upper case
tr Translate or delete characters
traceroute Trace a route over the network
track Interface to httrack
true Always return true
tset Set terminal up
tsort Perform topological sort
tty What terminal am I running this command from?
tune2fs Adjust tunable EXT2 filesystem parameters
tunelp Set various parameters for the lp device
tzselect Set the time zone
ul Do underlining
umount Unmount mounted filesystems
uname Name of operating system (try uname -a)
unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
uniq Remove duplicate lines from a sorted file
unscape Convert netscape converted input strings to real strings
unzip Unzip a zipped file
uptime How long has this computer been up?
urlsnarf Get a file from a web URL
useradd Add a user account
userdel Delete a user account
usermod Modify a user account
users List logged in users
usleep Sleep some number of microseconds
utodos Convert unix to DOS file content
uudecode Unix to Unix trnasport decode
uuencode Unix to Unix trnasport encode
uuidgen Command-line utility to create a new UUID value
uz unzip
vdir like ls -l
vim Visual editor
vimtutor Visual editor tutor
vipw Edit the password or group files
vmstat Virtual memory statistics
vncconnect Connect a VNC server to a VNC viewer
vncpasswd Set password for VNC server
vncserver Start a VNC server application
vncviewer VNC client application
w Who is on the system
wall Write to all users and terminals
watch Watch a set of command outputs
wc Word count
we Write Enable mounted disks
webget Get a URL from the web
webser Start a web server
wget Get a URL from the web
whatis Search the whatis database for complete words
whereis Locate the binary, source, and manual page files for a command
which If I type a command which program will it run?
whichall All the programs of that name in my path
whisker Scans CGI-bin scripts for vulnerabilities
who Who is logged in
whoami Who am I (what it my user ID, etc.)?
whois Lookup information in the Internet Whois database
wipe Shutdown LAM
wipedisk Wipe the contents of a disk out
wish Simple menu interface for X11
wl Write Lock mounted disks
word Get a word from the user
words Get multiple words from the user
write Write a message to another user
x Run X11 (if startx fails)
xhost Allow a remote host to control your X11 session (don't do it)
xkill Kill X11 windows
xprobe Find X11 systems and seek vulnerabilities
xrdb X server resource database utility
xscreensaver X11 screen saver
xterm Run a user terminal from X11
xtrace Trace a program execution
xvidtune Tune the video display
yacc Yet another compiler compiler
yes Send 'y' as output forever
yorn Get a 'y' or 'n' from the user
zcat Typoe a compressed file
zcmp Compare compressed files
zdiff Do 'diff' on compressed files
zdump Dump contents of a compressed file
zgrep Do 'grep' on a compressed file
zic Time zone compiler
zip Compress a file