Interviewing is an art form, just like Olympic level athletics or masterful
debating. Like any art form, perfection of the skill demands an appreciation
of the basics of the discipline and constant practice. If interviewing is
approached in this manner, there is a much greater likelihood of success.
Sound investigations are ones in which the interviewer gathers information that supports a fair and just decision. The quality of every interview conducted is critical for two reasons:
When starting out as an investigator, it is important that you prepare
thoroughly in advance of each interview. You must have a clear picture of
the issues to explore with the witness and of the facts which are necessary
to reach a conclusion. From this understanding you can create a "map"
of the terrain you need to cover and be confident that you will not overlook
obtaining essential information from a witness.
Before you take any action, be sure you have a full understanding of
the law, policy and/or guidelines which might affect the investigation.
This seemingly obvious step can make or break an otherwise sound investigation.
For example, I know of a case where a lawsuit was filed by the accused two
days into the investigative process. The school district was sued for skipping
over an informal resolution stage where it was claimed the matter could
have been resolved quickly. Had the school district's policies and procedures
been reviewed prior to investigating, this situation may have been avoided.
After you have analyzed the law, policies and guidelines, review all
existing documents which pertain to the case. Determine what issues arise
from the documents and what answers can be gleaned from them. Also, ascertain
when the document was created, who prepared it, why it was prepared, whether
the document is the original, and if not, where the original is kept. Verify
the accuracy or inaccuracy of any statements on the documents with the appropriate
Before interviewing a witness, prepare a detailed outline of all key
questions. Note the incidents this witness should be able to talk about
by cross-referencing to your investigation map. Be sure to get details regarding
each of the issues from this witness and ask whether they know of any other
person who would have information about these matters.
It is important to ask a witness what he or she may have heard, even in the form of rumors. Often rumors function as a "bread crumb trail" to a witness with a firsthand account. A person may feel uncomfortable about giving you this type of information, but you can reassure them that it will be considered merely a lead that you will follow-up on, not hard evidence.
As you begin to ask questions of the witness, start with open ended questions.
It is usually helpful to begin by asking witnesses very general information
that they are comfortable answering. This puts them in the cadence of answering
questions and gets them used to your voice, mannerisms and speech patterns.
Since your role as an investigator is of a neutral party, you want the interviewee to feel you are non-threatening. Letting them answer autobiographical questions to which they know the answer goes a long way toward establishing rapport.
The next article in this series will detail the different types of question
formats that should be used in interviewing. We'll analyze questions which
elicit a person's sensory recall of the events, creating "mental imaging"
in the witness. We'll also explore the use of hypothetical questions which
challenge the basic assumptions the witness is using to answer the questions.
These and other question formats will allow the investigator to probe deeply
into the incidents in a manner which is neutral but thorough and incisive.
Again, it is important to keep in mind that interviewing is an art form and as such, discipline and practice are the keys to mastery. For prior articles in this series or on investigation techniques in general, contact McGrath Systems, Inc. at (800) 733-1638.
Editor's Note: This is the second in a series of articles which address complaint management and investigative techniques. This article is general in nature and is not intended to replace professional legal advice by a specialist in education law.
Curriculum for Investigation
I. McGrath Sexual Harassment Investigation Training (Level I)
This two-day training will focus on sexual harassment intervention and investigation techniques, including complaint management skills. It is designed for participants with some background in sexual harassment laws and regulations. In the McGrath Sexual Harassment Investigation Training you will:
II. McGrath Advanced Sexual Harassment
Investigation Training (Level II)
This two day training is designed for participants with experience in investigating claims of sexual harassment and abuse. In the Advanced course you will:
III. Investigation Facilitation Training
This two day training is designed for participants interested in implementing the McGrath Sexual Harassment Intervention Program in their organization. You will be trained to facilitate Videos 3, 4 and 5 of Sexual Harassment: Minimize the Risk, and to provide your staff with an overview of sexual harassment laws, regulations and basic investigative skills.
Calendar of Upcoming Events
Training of Trainers Program July 11-14, 1996 Santa Barbara
Sexual Harassment Investigation Training - Level I October 24-25, 1996 Santa Barbara
Sexual Harassment Investigation Training - Level II November 14-15, 1996 Santa Barbara
Back to Home Page