Subject: IW Mailing List iw/960118
Date: Wed, 17 Jan 1996 10:18:27 -0500
Subject: [C4I-Pro] IW and deception....

In his message on broadcase satellites, Bertil wrote:

>During WW II the Allies used deception against dictators. 
>Hitler was led to believe that the invasion would come at 
>Calais in 1944 and the Japanese that the US would strike
>from the Aleutian Islands. With the coming of IW technologies 
>there are growing possibilities of misleading military 
>commanders and bureaucracies. How to defend against 
>hightech deception would probably be one of the most 
>important aspects of future wars. 

Although the emphasis of my own research has been on the development of
"organizational" issues implied by IW, I too have been fascintated by
the potential role of deception in IW.  I find the case of Soviet
deception operations, particularly between 1917 and 1970 particularly
compelling.  Many of these very successful campaigns relied upon the use
of "information technologies."

For instance, during the testing of the SS-7 ICBMs, the Soviets
broadcast accelerometer telemetry on three unencrypted channels. 
Accelerometers were used in the guidance package and were critical to
accurate targeting.  US analysts, who gathered this data through SIGINT
satellites, were convinced the Soviets used three channels (rather than
one) because they had no confidence in the quality of their
accelerometers, and thus wanted a three-data-point average from these
instruments.  They were wrong.  The Soviet accelerometers were very
good.  The real data was broadcast on one channel (which the Soviets
used) and junk was broadcast on the others.  When the CIA et al.  put
all this data together they concluded that these missiles were far less
accurate than they truly were.  US policy-makers, therefore, were led to
believe the SS-7 did not give the Soviet Union a functional first-strike
weapon, when in fact it might have. 

Clearly information warfare must have a deception element, however I am
troubled by the difficulty in applying a sufficiently rigid taxonomy to
IW that still allows it to cover such compelling notions as deception,
PSYWAR, and so forth.  My question to this august group is: was the
Soviet telemetry deception IW? Can and should our working definition of
IW include such stuff?
Date: Thu, 18 Jan 96 0:00:23 MST
From: "Cadet David A.  Koewler, x4659" 
Subject: re:Economic warfare via IW

I'm looking for sources/ideas on using IW for Economic Warfare.  I'm not
so interested in corporate battles but more along the lines of nation vs
nation.  Perhaps crashing Wall street or devaluing the dollar.