A Framework for Deception
Draft Report


Cialdini [34] provides a simple structure for influence and asserts that much of the effect of influence techniques is built-in below the concious level of most people. Some factors cross all human societies, while others may be more affected by social norms and culture. Cialdini discusses both the benefits of these natural tendencies and their exploitaiton by professionals for gaining compliance to desired behaviors. Regardless of how they are created, these techniques are apparently pattern matching phenomena that operate without regard to deep logical thought processes:
Area Technique Explanation
Recirprocation If it costs more it is worth more Raising the price on many items increases their sales because the buyers are looking for high quality and associate it with price.
Authority Experts know more than others When someone believes you are an expert, they will tend to defer to your opinions regardless of the sensibility of those opinions.
Contrast Contrast principle Substantial differences tend to be exagurated. Things are taken relative to context. After having your hand in hot water, luke-warm water seems cool. To sell something expensive, start by offering something more expensive and work your way down.
Automaticity Because When you add a 'because' followed by no new information, the chances of compliance increase substantially.
Recirprocation Reciprocation People tend to reciprocate any gifts. For example, even a meaningless gift will create an obligation. Refusal to accept a return gift makes you less likable because of the lack of opportunity to reciprocate.
Reciprocation and Contrast Reject and retreat This invokes both reciprocation and contrast. You start by asking for something big, then lower the request to something smaller. By reducing your request, you are both giving a concession (reciprication leading them to offer you something) and by lowering from a higher value you are invoking contrast (the second request doesn't look as high next to the first one).
Commitment and Consistency Commitments are honored If you can generate a promise of some sort, there will be a strong desire to fulfil it - no matter how much effort it takes or under what circumstances the promise was given.
Commitment and Consistency Consistency is highly valued Once you commit, your interpretation of inputs tend to support that committed view.
Automaticity Desire not to think If it requires thinking and they can back down to a simple rule of behavior, they will try to do so.
Automaticity Strong desire not to rethink If it requires rethinking, it introduces self-doubt and will be avoided unless absolutely necessary.
Automaticity Default decision process Logic is only used if there is a desire and ability to analyze the situation, otherwise, pattern matching to known social behavioral patterns is used.
Commitment and Consistency Small commitments lead to big ones Self-image is raised through making and keeping to commitments and as a result, larger and larger commitments are made over time.
Commitment and Consistency Active commitments are better than passive ones Commitments where you do something are far more effective at gaining subbsequent compliance than those which are passive promises.
Commitment and Consistency Public image leads to self image Written statements are given more credence than oral ones - both by author and reader, there is a higher tendency to do something if you write it down, public commitments are more often kept than private ones.
Commitment and Consistency Increased complicance with investment Invested time and effort (sunk costs) forms increased commitment; more pain involved increases commitment level (loyalty from hazing, more pain more gain), less external return forces more internalization of value (ownership and commitment follow), low-balling works (get a commitment, create other supports for the decision, then remove the original motivation and the commitment remains).
Commitment and Consistency Consistency causes decisions Even when remaining consistent seems foolish, people will choose new reasons to stay with a decision because to do otherwise would cause you to have to admit you were wrong and rethink your previous commitments.
Social Proof We interpret based on how others interpret Laugh tracks work even if we know they are in use. Seeded collection boxes cause increased donations. Popularity is taken as goodness, even if known to be wrong.
Social Proof Social proof replaces hard proof in uncertainty Fear is reduced by watching others like you not fear it. Create uncertainty and generate social proof. Social proof works better when they are like you.
Liking We like saying 'yes' to people we like Twice as likely to say yet to people we like, referals from friends increase likelihood of succes in sales, MCI 'friends and family' is 90% effective because it 'does a friend a favor' to switch.
Liking Physical attraction increases liking We are more likely to like someone we are physically attracted to and likely to dislike someone we are not physically attracted to.
Liking Similarity breeds liking Similar dress, color, background, behaviors, accents, lifestyle, interest, age, religion, pllitics, and names are all examples of how similarities increase liking and differences decrease liking, even when known to be falsehoods.
Liking Compliments increase liking Even when compliments are known to be deceptions, people still like those who give them - unless they go 'too far'.
Liking More contact increases liking Familiarity improves likeing unless the experience is unpleasant.
Liking Groups working together bond Common cause increases liking and friendship between group members and groups.
Liking Groups in competition breeds enemies Competition creates hostility and personal dislike.
Liking Messages are attributed to messengers When a message is unpleasant, the messenger is disliked, while good messages cause mesengers to be liked. The attributes of the message are attributed to the mesenger by association.
Liking Association enhances liking or disliking People are more receptive to compliance after a good meal. People associate to their nation, city, race, etc. and like it when the things they associate with succeed.
Liking People tend to associate with things that enhance their self-image If they like themselves, they choose to associate to things that are successful through the similarities to themselves. If they have a negative self-image they tend to associate with things that fail by seeking similarities with themselves.
Authority Duty to authority is deeply embedded in culture Higher authority overrides lower ones, appearance of authority replaced real authority, titles lead to the appearance of authority, higher deference to known authorities.
Authority Appearances imply authority Higher position appears to be taller, taller as more important, importance seen as larger, larger size implies more strength. clotinh and accoutraments imply authority (as a function of situation), other trappings imply authority.
Scarcity Perceived scarcity increases perceived value Similar to Shannon's information theory in which less frequently used syntax elements have higher informaiton content. Scarce quantity, time, availability all make things more attractive.
Scarcity Loss is higher value than gain In trading a loss against an identical valued gain, the loss is more highly valued.
Scarcity Desire to have what is restricted Especially effective against teenagers and young children, but also quite effective against people of all ages. More effective if more restrictive. Exclusivity yield desire to have.
Scarcity Desire to have it "our way" Even if 'our way' is actually not 'our way', the fact of choice increases desirability.
Scarcity Exclusive information is more valued Secrets, information that others do not have, restricted information, all seem to make the information more valuable. Exclusive information about a shortage has more effect on driving up perceived value that the shortage itself.
Scarcity Drops from abundance to scarcity increase value More value is attributed to something if it is first possessed then lost. For example, revolutions are far more likely after some political gains followed by retrenchment.
Automaticity automaticity can be enhanced Incresed rush, stress, uncertainty, indifference, distraction, and fatigue all lead to less thoughtful and more automatic responses. Thus by adding to these elements, we increase the effectiveness of all of these techniques.

While Cialdini backs up this information with numerous studies, his work is largely done and largely cites western culture. Some of these elements are apparently culturally driven and care must be taken to assure that they are used in context. Similar studies for people interacting with and through computers have not been completed at this time as far as we can tell but they would clearly be helpful in understanding how people interact through and with computers.