A Framework for Deception
Draft Report

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Designator Structure Characteristic Principle Example
0.A - - Design deception to have the desired total, integrated, effect on target's processes (understanding, inference, decision, judgement, monitoring, goal setting, memory, learning, etc.). -
0.A.1 - - NOTE: 'The effect is the thing'.--Annemmann. -
0.A.2 - - NOTE: The measure of the effectiveness of a deception should be based on its effect on target's cognitive processes, not our perception of it. -
0.A.3 - - NOTE: our individual personality and approach must determine what we present, and how we present it. -
0.B - - Increase difficulty for target to find the truth (i.e., target's info processes). -
0.B.a - - Increase ambiguity ('A-type' deception). -
0.B.aa - - Manipulate or capitalize on target's EXPECTATIONS. -
0.B.b - - Decrease ambiguity, but lead away from the truth ('M-type' deception--misleading). -
0.B.i - - Manipulate mental set via instructions, suggestion, pre-planned experiences. -
0.B.i.1 - - NOTE: We see things as our minds think target ought to be; our minds find simple (sic) patterns automatically; and once a meaning or pattern is established, it is difficult to change ('perceptual prejudice').--Weibel. -
0.B.i.2 - - NOTE: 'We represent it so vividly to ourselves we believe we see it.'--A. Binet, 1894 regarding habitually associated acts. -
0.B.i.3 - - NOTE: 'Always endeavor to form an accurate conception of the point of view most likely to be adopted by a disinterested spectator.'--Maskelyne. -
0.B.ii - - Capitalize on target's education, prior experiences. -
0.B.ii.1 - - NOTE: Perception (e.g., based on partial info; see, including the finding and interpretation of evidence, is affected by expectation, beliefs, motives, past experiences. -
0.C - - Induce / capitalize on target's general processing capabilities and strategies (e.g., to predict susceptibility to particular types of deception). -
0.C.a - - Whether target's thinking style is 'left-hemisphere' (logical, analytical, ...), or 'right-hemisphere' (intuitive, spacial, visual, ...). -
1.0.A - - Capitalize on the speed and accuracy of target's EXEC processes (understanding, inference, decision, judgement, monitoring, goal setting, memory, learning, etc.). -
1.0.B - - Capitalize on patterns of target's EXEC processing, especially those revealed by his type of education and thinking habits. Provide target with input which leads him along his accustomed paths of thinking. -
1.0.a - Emotions affect avail. of proc. resources & decision speed - -
1.0.b - Directs and manages other processes - -
1.0.c - Interacts with LTM - -
1.0.d - Guides and utilizes MONITOR - -
1.1 MONITOR / ASSESS CURRENT INTERNAL COGNITIVE SYSTEM STATE (PHYSICAL & MENTAL CONDITION; high-level goals, motivation, readiness, available resources / time, emotions / feelings / intuitions, confidence). - Use physical and mental (POW) techniques such as brute force and 'brainwashing' to reduce target's mental capability, possibly without him realizing it (e.g., alter his self-image; lower his self-esteem). See, 8.3.B., 8.5.A, 8.8.5. -
1.1.0 GENERAL. - - -
1.1.1 MOTIVATION ('Will'). Includes 'will', determination, loyalty, and commitment Manipulate or capitalize on target's motivation (e.g., to alienate from group or authority and win to our side). - Intensity of Motivation. Level of motivation; laziness - - - - Capitalize on target's laziness on non-delegated tasks - - - Weaken target's morale. - - - Induce / capitalize on complacency / lack of motivation. - - - Induce / capitalize on target's appreciation for or interest in events (entertainment, art, grace, beauty, etc.) to delay action. - Commitment, loyalty. Commitment to goals and means - - - - Obtain premature commitment (e.g., by pressure tactics). - - - Strengthen commitment to a goal by inducing belief that it was target's idea. - - - Strengthen commitment to a goal by making target work for it (e.g., seemingly against our will). - - - Weaken commitment by inducing belief target's asset is a liability he should discard. - Responsibility (actual & perceived). - Decrease perceived responsibility by dividing it: The standard explanation for war crimes activities after WWII was, 'I was just following orders'. - - 'Collective guilt becomes singularly absolving'. - Motivating factors. (Feelings / motives to do or obtain something. General high-level goals & constraints; positive or negative.) - - - Hope for obtaining something of value. - Build false hopes. (Hope for something of value can be a major payoff in con games in which it is the result of intense belief and focus overriding the low validity and the low likelihood of obtaining the desired outcome. See also Payoff Value). - Altruism (feelings of charity, sympathy). - - - Empathy, identification, helpfulness, humanitarianism, compassion. - - - Feelings of embarrassment, humiliation, unworthiness. - - - Particular emotions (q.v.). - - - Greed or desire for. - - - Interest in; boredom. - - - Involvement in. - - - Curiosity about. - - - Pride, vanity, (e.g., due to flattery). - - - Jealousy, envy. - - - Revenge. - - - Sense of obligation. - - - Objectives of value ('direction' of motivation): - - - Personal values: ethics, esthetics, simplicity, efficiency, understanding, entertainment, humor, pleasure, ego-boost. - - - Achievement (& to inform, entertain, persuade). - - - Control & Power: influence, security, safety, profit, reward. - - - Social values: companionship, sympathy, acceptance, sense of belonging, participation, status, recognition, 'saving face'. - Put target in a position where to disagree would make him look bad to himself or others (Logical Fallacy 27), or where to agree would make him look good. Have the deception put target in a position which makes him look good. (See also Payoff Value). -
1.1.1.A - - So target does not want (see also -
1.1.1.A.a - - to obtain key info. -
1.1.1.A.b - - to process key info correctly. -
1.1.1.A.c - - to communicate or establish a close relationship (e.g., by simulating an unappealing characteristic or condition). -
1.1.1.B - - Induce belief that the end (goal) justifies the means. -
1.1.1.B.a - - - In Shakespeare's 'As You Like It,' the king finds it distasteful to examine the executed prisoner's head closely enough to detect it is not that of the prisoner he ordered beheaded.
1.1.1.B.b - - - A psychological experiment was done in which a student was part of what he thought to be a group study on perception. Each individual was to say which line of a set looked longest. However all of the other subjects were stooges and, in specific cases, would all choose the wrong line. It was found that the student would often choose the wrong line just to keep it from appearing that he was disagreeing with everyone else: he preferred to lie than to appear foolish.
1.1.1.C - - Offer 'greener grass' (capitalize on target's desparation; point to unfulfilled promises; promise gain). -
1.1.1.D - - Induce / capitalize on conflicting motives. -
1.1.2 READINESS. Factors affecting readiness: Induce / capitalize on a change in activation threshold level (e.g., by increasing false alarm rate; 8.3.2. NOTE 3: partially dehoaxing a subject in an experiment involving nested deceptions, and thereby changing his expectations and making him more sensitive to the possibility of deception.) - Availability of proc resources for delegation to CONTROLLER. - - - Fatigue (e.g., reduces avail proc res). Factors affecting fatigue: - - - Amount of sleep - - - amount of food and water - -
1.1.2.a - confinement - -
1.1.2.b - physical exercise - -
1.1.3 EMOTIONAL STATE / MOOD (& the processes which activate emotions). - - - Intensity. - - - Quality (emotion type). - - - anxiety, fear, panic. - - - love, compassion, pity, hate, anger. - - - pessimism, guilt, shame, inadequacy, inferiority. - - - happiness, enthusiasm, optimism, elation (e.g., uplifting feeling from a positive, self-fulfilling, morally righteous, or therapeutic experience), sadness, despondency, depression. - - - humor. - - - satisfaction, dissatisfaction, jealousy, envy. - - - attraction, fascination, obsession, distaste, disgust. - - -
1.1.3.A - - Create or capitalize on emotional commitment -
1.1.3.B - - Arouse emotions (e.g., fluster, q.v.) to: -
1.1.3.B.a - - decrease available processing resources (2.1.). -
1.1.3.B.b - - manipulate or take advantage of motivation (1.1.1.); e.g., demotivate and disarm through depression. -
1.1.3.B.c - - distract target from something; cloud thinking. -
1.1.3.B.d - - make target lose sense of time. -
1.1.4 COGNITIVE SYSTEM's SELF-CONFIDENCE; SELF-ESTEEM. (The COGNITIVE SYSTEM derives self-confidence from the knowledge in the self-image (see 8.8.5. SELF-IMAGE in LTM), & K attributes such as reliability & trust.) - - -
1.1.4.A - - Make target distrust own capabilities, information, or solution. -
1.1.4.A..a.aa - - which target prefers. -
1.1.4.A.a - - Provide an (alternative) explanation. -
1.1.4.A.b - - Feed recognizably false info into sensors or sensor buffers. -
1.1.4.B - - Encourage unwarranted trust in target's capabilities. -
1.1.4.B.a - - Continue to emit obsolete data to encourage target's continued use of obsolete info processing methods (see also 6.MSS.5.2.D.c.). If it is known that a particular code or channel is being read by the enemy then, even after a new communication method is established, deceptive messages may continue to be sent by the old method to feed false info to the enemy and to keep the enemy from looking for the new method.
1.1.4.B.b - - Capitalize on ignorance of true sensor sensitivity especially under special circumstances. target may believe he can detect a faint object beyond a bright light when in fact he can not because the sensitivity of his eyes adjusts to the light instead of to the object beyond it.
1.1.A - - Brainwashing techniques include: -
1.1.A.a - - fatigue; sleep, food, water deprivation. -
1.1.A.b - - repetitive stimuli. -
1.1.A.c - - rhythmic stimuli such as photic driving at natural brain wave frequencies to produce seizures in epileptics. -
1.1.A.d - - forceful stimuli. -
1.1.A.e - - sensory deprivation; reduced stimulation. -
1.1.A.f - - unpredictable environment. -
1.1.A.g - - unpredictable attitudes of brainwashers (e.g., from conciliatory to brutal). -
1.1.A.h - - unpredictable punishment. -
1.1.A.i - - isolation. -
1.1.A.j - - indoctrination lectures, lies, persuasion. -
1.1.A.k - - threats; fear; simulate punishment of others. -
1.1.A.l - - disorientation. -
1.1.A.note - - NOTE: Make target susceptible to 'brainwashing' by emotional deprivation or high states of emotion (e.g., anger & fear) as may be produced by excessive leniency or excessive punishment, especially when used alternately. -
1.1.B - - Techniques for producing hallucinations (e.g., confusion of reality and fantasy) include: Joshua Slocum, 1900, on a solo South Atlantic crossing, hallucinated that somone else steered the ship for him ('Savior' hallucination).
1.1.B.a - - confine (physically; by threats; by commands). -
1.1.B.b - - remove from environment--(prolonged) isolation. -
1.1.B.c - - sensory habituation; monotonous stimuli (e.g., noises). -
1.1.B.d - - (prolonged) uncertainty of outcome (e.g., life raft experience). -
1.1.B.e - - physiological damage; deprivation. -
1.1.C - - Hypnosis can be used to induce sensor & affector hallucinations, make memory modifications, control attention, and control EXEC processes such as decision and judgement. -
1.1.D - - Drugs and Chemicals. -
1.1.E - - Electro-stimulation of the brain to produce artificial sensations, emotions, epileptic seizures, etc. -
1.1.F - - Physical changes. Temperature (e.g., heat exhaustion to produce disorientation); Movement (e.g., inner ear / visual disparity; spinning to cause dizziness; ship motion to cause seasickness). -
1.3 HIGH-LEVEL THINKING PROCESSES (Understanding, Inference, Judgement, & Decision). (See list of processes in 1.6. EXEC PROCESSES & procedures in 4.4. ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES.) - - -
1.3.1 Control & Autonomy. Intellectual maturity; capacity for independent thought - - Independence of thinking processes (See also & - Induce / strengthen reliance on other's decisions. - - - Discourage skepticism & independent thought. Captors reindoctrinate new POWs with the help of experienced POWs who are already partially reindoctrinated, and who now 'know more than the new POWs' and can use this claim and peer pressure in converting the new POWs to the captors' viewpoints. - - Encourage dependence and unquestioning info acceptance. Cult organizations isolate members from the outside world and discourage free thought, particularly negative thoughts about the cult. target encourage unquestioning belief of and obedience to cult leaders. - - Appeal to ignorance ('You don't know, so believe me'). Captors reindoctrinate new POWs with the help of experienced POWs who are already partially reindoctrinated, and who now 'know more than the new POWs' and can use this claim and peer pressure in converting the new POWs to the captors' viewpoints. - - We, in authority position, give target faulty advice which makes target still more in need of or dependent on our advice. - - - Utilize herd instinct; peer pressure; fads; popular ideas (Logical Fallacy 24 part b). (Susceptibility affected by excitement; physiological / chemical changes such as adrenalin flow; motivational speeches; humor--it spreads.) - - - Create an imaginary new entity so target's only source information on it is from us. Snipe hunt. The victim is invited to 'join' a hunt for a (nonexistent) bird or animal. His role is to wait very quietly and patiently in the brush with a bag and catch it when it is flushed out by the others. The victim ends up alone in a dark or spooky place. Perceived amount of control. - - - - - Make target believe he is in control: - - - that target has a plan that will accomplish his objective and can carry or is carrying it out. Play along with target's deception. - - - that target is obtaining information through his own efforts, and independently of our wishes. - - - that target is responsible for initiating the contact or event. - - - that events, especially target's losses, are due to his own actions. - - - that target has the advantage of practice, which in fact serves as a control condition for correctly interpreting his later actions. Questions given in advance of a lie detector test serve to calibrate the subject's responses, rather than to help beat the test as the subject may believe. - - that target, rather than someone else, has set the conditions for the 'test'. - - - Make target think he is 'in on' the plan. - - - Multiple targets, 'in on the plan' and cooperating, none of whom knows the deeper deception in which the plan is nested. -
1.3.2 Belief formation & employment processes Criteria for belief - - Expectation (result of prediction). - Induce / utilize belief which itself can produce the desired / expected effect (e.g., physiological effect; psychological effect; self-fulfilling prophesy; placebos). The reduction of pain by a placebo. The creation of a false high by a nonhallucinogenic substance. In an experiment, a person expecting to be touched by hot metal developed a blister when touched by ice. An influential analyst's stock-market prediction is fulfilled when many investors act to take advantage of it. Receptivity to info; belief criteria (skepticism & gullibility (involved in making 8.8. World Image & current situation image). Tendency to suspect deception - - - - Induce or capitalize on suspicions or conclusions caused by (false) allegations ('Where there's smoke, there's fire') (Logical Fallacy 28.). Political candidates are sometimes indicted (on false or exaggerated charges) immediately before an election to sway public opinion. - - Alter target's receptivity to information or a concept by changing his emotional state / mood (see 1.1.3. & through employment of humor, ridicule, flattery, etc. (Logical Fallacy 38). The degree to which one is intimidated and influenced by belief in fortune telling, witches, ghosts, psychic phenomena, etc., may be reduced by treating these subjects with humor or ridicule. - - Induce / strengthen target's belief in something by virtue of target's involvement in it (see - - - Induce target to increase his receptivity to information (suspend his skepticism) by withholding information from him, thereby creating an 'appetite' for information. - - - Induce target to accept an excuse (e.g. for a failure, an experiment failure, or for cheating) by inventing a characteristic which requires the behavior. (See also Logical Fallacy 30, 'The Good Reason'). Psychics' excuses for failure: 'No genuine psychic can regularly produce phenomena upon demand' (the shyness effect--a phenomenon is adversely affected by the presence of distrust, e.g., experimental controls or the presence of careful observers, especially disbelievers or skeptical evaluators). Psychics' explanations cheating: 'Psychics are compulsory cheaters and should be forgiven when caught'; 'Psychics cheat some of the time because target don't want to disappoint the audience when target fail'; Consequently, a psychic must be assumed genuine unless ALL of his phenomena are proven fake. (Source: The Amazing Randi). - - Utilize target's beliefs and assumptions about plausibility (see also - - - Keep deception story within bounds which target believes to be plausible & a viable option for us. - - - If target won't believe a truth which we want target to believe (e.g., because it is astounding or unacceptable), then distort the truth to be within plausible bounds. In Poul Anderson's 'When Half-Gods Go,' aliens from space have such unbelievably good things to offer humanity that target must substantially reduce their claims to be believed. - - Make target's concept of our plan implausible, or select plan which target considers implausible: - - - No possible means to goal; therefore either we have a different goal or we will fail (note: the goal may be obtaining particular information). - - - The particular means to goal is impossible; therefore either we have a different goal, or we have a different means to the goal, or we will fail. - - - Required preparation is not worthwhile or reasonable or probable. - - - Capitalize on improbable, special / unique cases. - - - Induce or capitalize on SELF-PERPETUATION OF BELIEFS, particularly prior or desired beliefs. - - - Note: Rationality is a self-correcting system of discovery; a rational attitude allows testing of beliefs. Rationalization consists of those processes which make beliefs self-perpetuating regardless of the evidence. - - - Capitalize on target's strong tendency to believe what he wants to believe (Logical Fallacy 31--wishful thinking). (See also 1.1.1. Motivated behavior.) - - - Self-perpetuation of beliefs due to SUBJECTIVE VALIDATION, in which only evidence supporting the belief is sought, noticed, or fully processed / pursued. Non-supporting or contradictory evidence is not-noticed, ignored, interpreted as supporting, or disregarded. Also see other headings. - - - Source selection. Selective seeking, exposure to, or use of only those info sources which support current view (2.4.2. Info Selection). (See also - - - Information selection. Capitalize on target's tendency to FAIL TO OBSERVE OR NOTICE, to ignore, or to suppress evidence which fails to support or which contradicts his current view (see also Logical Fallacy 34; 2.4.2. Info Selection). (INFO SELECTION) 'Mistories' (Marks & Kammen's term) of popular authors Von Daeniken (Ancient Astronauts), Castaneda, Berlitz (Bermuda Triangle) supply a barrage of information, but only that which supports the author's hypothesis; target omit the rest. - - Information validation. Capitalize on target's failure to question evidence (e.g., 'amazing results' of a psychic) which supports his current view. - - - Induce / capitalize on target's tendency to interpret or MISINTERPRET ALL EVIDENCE AS SUPPORTING or more favorable to one's preferred beliefs. Note: A 'non-falsifiable' belief is one which any data likely to be obtained can be interpreted to support. - - - Capitalize on target's tendency to deduce without consideration of, or in spite of, the facts, especially on the basis of prior beliefs (Logical Fallacy 34), or when lacking information. - - - Induce / capitalize on target's tendency to disregard or excuse contradictory evidence. - - - e.g., to hypothesize 'if A then B', and then, when B fails to occur, to conclude that A needs to be done better, rather than that the hypothesis is false. - - - Capitalize on target's tendency to notice or concentrate on EXPECTED stimuli, successes, meaningful stimuli, and matches; and to fail to notice or ignore UNEXPECTED or 'non-' (meaningless) objects or events, such as a failure to match. - - - Capitalize on target's tendency to notice those things to which he has been alerted. (See also 0.B.b.aa. Expectation.) - - - and to therefore subsequently perceive it as occuring more frequently than before. - - - 'Illusionary correlation' is a type of subjective validation in which expected matches are imagined to occur more often than target really do. - - - Induce recognition of an incorrect pattern, e.g., by suggesting a particular interpretation of data ('suggestion'). (EXPECTATION) 'suggestion.' The journal 'Science' once reported an undercover evaluation of mental health facilities in which the actions of the investigators, who were disguised as patients, were interpreted as part of their psychoses by the doctors. These actions included, for example, their inquisitiveness about the facility and their constant notetaking. - - Induce / capitalize on target's tendency to accept the apparent accuracy and specificity of matches between two descriptions or predictions, when target in fact are due to underestimation of the size of sample sets and the principle of EQUIVALENT ODDMATCHES rather than to any significant analytical or predictive power. (ODDMATCHES) Personality readings by psychics seem to fit us because target are general enough to fit many people. Their accuracy seems beyond the realm of chance; the psychic as well as the subject often being deceived in this regard. Nostradamus wrote poems which seem prophetic because target are ambiguous and capitalize on the principle of oddmatches. For any century, one can find an event which matches each verse. - - ODDMATCHES: The subjective 'oddmatch' effect occurs when the matching of one event, such as a dream, with another, such as a subsequent happening, is perceived as unlikely (and perhaps paranormal) because of a failure to realize the very large number of opportunities for matches. A person may greatly underestimate the size of the sets of match candidates: (1) because he fails to notice many match candidates which do not occur, but which could occur; and (2) because he perceives what is actually a long-run situation (unlimited time) as a short-run situation. - - - Thus, an 'oddmatch' situation is one with multiple 'hit' endpoints (see also 'multiple outs'), and in which any of many possible matches produces the desired outcome. The principle of equivalent oddmatches is that any of these matches is as good as any other. People naturally mistake an 'oddmatch' situation for a 'probability match' situation with a single 'hit' endpoint, for which only one possible match produces the desired outcome. (Reference: Marks & Kammann##, pages 24, 40, 158, 161, 166, 168). (See - - Experience being deceived - - Weighting of info. - Inappropriate weighting of info (e.g., unequal weighting of data when equal weighting is required.) -
1.3.3 Simplification and Approximation. - - -
1.3.3.A - - Oversimplification (Logical Fallacy 62). Prevent complete understanding of a complex situation. -
1.3.3.B - - Assume linearity for a nonlinear system (See Unwarranted extrapolation of periodic function). -
1.3.A - - Capitalize on inadequacies in target's conceptualization, comprehension, & inferencing (e.g., conditional probabilities are difficult to comprehend).(see 4.4.2.). -
1.3.B - - Justification. -
1.3.B.a - - Special pleading: applying a principle only in cases when it supports a given (target's) view (Logical Fallacy 32). -
1.3.B.b - - Special consideration: appeal to pity, extenuating circumstances (Logical Fallacy 39). -
1.3.B.c - - Fallacies: 'Point to another wrong': 'Every one else does it'; 'two wrongs make a right' (Logical Fallacy 41). -
1.4.1 Define Current Situation. - - - Observe & Compare Goals & Current State. - - - Assess resources & capabilities (requirements &availability; refer to self-image). - - - STATE K (features, templates, associations). - - - PROCESS K (procedures, routines, preplanned responses (actions; changed data base) for specified conditions). - - - General effectiveness of high-level decision processes. - - - Speed. - - - - - Induce a quick (hasty) decision: - - - Limit analysis time (desperation, urgency) (e.g. to limit info sources, competition, etc.) (e.g., by manipulating payoff matrix as function of time). Often advertisements will state that the buyer has only a very limited time to respond to the offer. Thus, the buyer must send in his money before he has had time to judge if he really needs the product or if he can get it at a better price. - - Arouse target's emotions. - - - Induce belief target has sufficient or all available data. - - - fit target's preconceptions. - - - Slow target's decision by introducing uncertainty: - - - Make target consider possibility of deception. - - - Use confusion or contradiction. - - - Distort target's perception of progress towards a solution. - Timing. - - - Reliability. Ability to detect deception - - - Alert status - - Criticality. - Conceal / disguise criticality of target's critical decisions. - - - Enhance target's indecision by making all alternatives seem: - - - equal. - - - bad (Logical Fallacy 43). - - - Hinder target's decision by limiting target's analysis resources. - - - Induce failure of target to examine all data before making decision. - - - - Many mazes are arranged so that, after leaving the correct path near the start, one can proceed almost all the way to the goal before a barrier defeats the attempt.
1.4.2 Generate Plan to Satisfy High-Level Goals (options, priorities, initiate internal action). - - - Generate & plan high-level options: - - - Determine assignment for delegation to manager. Select system component (e.g., MANAGER) & processing strategy (e.g., 'K-USING & K-BUILDING Thinking Modes'). (May delegate to CONTROLLER). - - - Evaluate & prioritize high-level options. (Reasonableness check.) - - -
1.4.3 Initiate Internal & External Action Processes to Satisfy High-Level Goals. - - - Allocate required processing resources for assignment by CONTROLLER. - - - Delegate task to MANAGER, etc. - - -
1.6 FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES (& CATEGORIES thereof) (e.g., thinking processes & inference tools employed in problem solving procedures used by MANAGER; Data-reduction (chunking) to selected level of detail. Prediction, e.g., using context to produce expectations). Comprehension, concept formation Induce target to make a faulty GENERALIZATION (see also Logical and Intuitive reasoning & judgement): -
1.6.1 Establish, construct, synthesize, or refer to a STATE DESCRIPTION, such as a situation image / picture, or a goal, initial, or current state. (See also MANAGER - - - Assumptions. - Induce or capitalize on SELF-PERPETUATION OF BELIEFS, particularly prior or desired beliefs. - - - Induce / capitalize on plausible, but erroneous assumptions which are used implicitly or automatically during organization and categorization of (e.g., input) data (e.g., assumptions about the results of data handling processes or transformations). (See also - - - Induce target to erroneously assume temporal or spacial continuity. - Hypotheses. - - - Perceived probability of deception. - - - Measures of confidence in achieving goal. - - - External monitoring (FEEDBACK input). - - -
1.6.2 COMPARE two state images (e.g., for goal & initial / current state). - - -
1.6.3 CONNECT states and processes. - - -
1.6.4 ASSOCIATE / CONNECT (High-level part of data input process; see SENSORS & AFFECTORS for low- & mid-level processes): (This is a read process rather than a write process.) Organization, sorting, categorizing of (input) data (data reduction (chunking) to selected level of detail). - - - Types of ASSOCIATIONS: - - - Passive (e.g., characteristics). - - - Causal / influential. - - - - - Induce target to assume a cause due to spacial or temporal (observe A & B, assume A causes B): - - - proximity or sequence (Logical Fallacy 04. 'Assuming the cause'). A person taking prescribed medication may assume he recovers because of it, when in fact he may have recovered equally well without it. - - relation. - - - exclusion. - - - (Logical Fallacy 07) correlation (e.g., covary normally unrelated events). - - - Faulty causal generalization (observe B, assume existence of A--reverse of assuming the cause) (Logical Fallacy 05.). - - - Faulty ultimate cause (mistake triggering event for ultimate cause) (Logical Fallacy 06.). -
1.6.4.A - - 'Reification' or 'Hypostation'-- Making an abstract concept into a substance (Logical Fallacy 15.). Personification-- Attributing human characteristics (e.g., intent, motivation, emotion) to non-human creatures or objects (Logical Fallacy 35). -
1.6.4.B - - Word Magic: because the word exists, the thing does (Logical Fallacy 19). (E.g., the average person who has 2.3 children; fate). -
1.6.5 HIGH-LEVEL PATTERN RECOGNITION & INTERPRETATION. Recognition & interpretation of patterns, using induction, deduction, relational patterns including analogies, metaphors, logical relationships (at a high-level rather than at mid-level as in the case of 6.7.MSS.5. PERCEIVE under SENSORS). - - - Speed - - - Accuracy (Classification, Identification) - - - - - Employ 'branding' or 'name-calling' to induce inaccurate classification (e.g., capitalize on the 'Them vs Us' mentality by branding a third party as the 'enemy'). - - - Induce or capitalize on target's tendency to be unable to see alternative interpretations once the first one has been established (i.e., once a 'Gestalt' has been formed, or 'closure' has occured.) The initial impression is crucial, since the system uses it as a basis for finding a pattern match. - - - Faulty set definition. - - - Sampling: sample set not as implied); Sample from inappropriate (nonrepresentative) subset (Logical Fallacy 02.). - - - Non-exhaustive classification (classification does not include all cases) (Logical Fallacy 13). - - - Non-exclusive classification (classification does not uniquely classify each case) (Logical Fallacy 14.) - - - Unnecessary vagueness (Logical Fallacy 17). (See also - - - Overprecision (specify more precision than is justified by measurement or method) (Logical Fallacy 18). Unwarranted or unnecessary accuracy. - - - Can't make any decision unless something is defined in its entirety. - - - Demand precise definition of something which can't be defined. -
1.6.5.A - - Simulate, substitute, or disguise to fit a known pattern (see also 6.MSS.5.) & D.b. 6.MSS.5.2.D.a. & D.c. 7.AA.5. An enterprising individual replaced check deposit slips in the lobby of various bank branches with his own. Regardless of what was written on them, the computer automatically deposited customers' deposits to his account. Three weeks later, before the ceiling fell in, he withdrew a newly deposited $250,000 and left the country.
1.6.5.B - - Induce recognition of expected pattern by providing partial info compatable with it; e.g., by providing pieces of an item, or by providing items ,personnel, events, or activities obviously associated with it. (The parts imply the existence of the whole). -
1.6.5.B.a - - (Also: recognition of a stimulus may be supressed bythe use of incongruent stimulus, e.g., by dominance of one member of a set over others.) When a red six-of-spades is briefly presented to subjects in a psychological experiment, it is seen either as a black spade, a red heart, or, by some subjects, as a red spade.
1.6.5.C - - Induce finding of non-significant pattern post-hoc so target wastes future resources searching for it, or is unjustifiably confident he knows situation. In experiments which test individuals for ESP using the guessing of unknown cards, a few individuals may, by chance, perform much worse than chance. On observing this, a researcher may decide to perform statistical tests on these same data to determine whether the individual is 'anti-psychic': i.e. has psychic ability which leads him to tend to guess the wrong cards. Such a statistical test is meaningless because: 1) the experiment was originally intended to test a different hypothesis, i.e., to to test for better than normal 'guessing' ability, 2) the data were selected to provide a biased sample from only selected 'anti-psychic' subjects, and 3) the test for 'anti-psychic' abilities was prescribed after the fact, and because it was particularly well-suited to the patterns which occurred by chance in that particular data set. Since one could probably find some hypothesis to fit any data set generated, the analysis result is statistically meaningless.
1.6.5.D - - Fit pattern target expects and / or seeks to achieve goal. -
1.6.5.E - - Make pattern unrecognizable by restructuring input data. A Southern California door-to-door magazine sales group, the 'Clearing And Subscription House,' offered a wide selection at excellent prices. target had checks made out using their acronym: CASH, which their customers failed to recognize as a meaningful word. Arrests were made early in 1985.
1.6.5.E.a - - Provide incorrect segmentation. An artifact was inscribed 'Toti e hors esto'. What was it used for? Ans: To tie horses to.
1.6.5.F - - Capitalize on the ambiguity of stimuli with multiple interpretations by providing suitable context; E.g., visual illusions such as figure-ground reversal; pictures with two or more visual interpretations. -
1.6.5.G - - Use of misleading or ambiguous appearance of data (e.g., visual illusions) to manipulate target's interpretation of data (e.g., a comparison). -
1.6.5.H - - Faulty analogy (Logical Fallacy 08). Relate to common, but inappropriate experience. -
1.6.5.I - - Dissimulate something; e.g., a capability. Cause failure of recognition of a pattern by providing data incompatible with it. -
1.6.6 EVALUATION, CHOICE, & PREDICTION: (See MANAGER.) Prediction contributes to expectations; Building & use of hypotheses; see MANAGER. Prediction supports interpretation of info & K at all levels. - Relativitism (Logical Fallacy 16.). 'All things are relative'; no essential or absolute features. - States & Processes Supporting 'PREDICT'. - - - Context (see MANAGER). - - - Current spacial & temporal context (see MANAGER; STM; & EXEC - - - Long term & associative context (see LTM). - - - MANAGER processes using theories, models, etc. - - -
1.6.7 DIRECT (ORCHESTRATE). (First part of external output processing. See AFFECTORS for IMPLEMENT & DRIVE). - Orchestrate multiple actions to achieve a unified deceptive effect. - Pattern generation USING established actions (e.g., automatic processes, procedures, routines). - Capitalize on target's established behaviors and actions. - - - Evoke from target an inappropriate or self-defeating response (e.g., by misleading target as to nature of threat & context, evoking the corresponding countermeasure). Soft snowball showers target who, instead of ducking, blocks it as if were hard. Bomb designed not to detonate until defused. Drone with missiles programmed to hit whatever shoots drone down. - - Capitalize on target's tendency to see new information in terms of his old framework and questions, even when new ones are required. - - - Induce target to utilize outdated policy or other behaviors which were established on the basis of beliefs no longer held, but which are difficult to identify and change when beliefs change. Subgoals may take on a 'life of their own' even after the goals target support are obsolete. - BUILDING / learning (orchestrated) action patterns. - Teach target something we can exploit. - ACTION PROCESSES. - - - Domain of operation: - - - Temporal. - Capitalize on situation known to cause delay (e.g. to buy time). - Controls & Constraints. - - - Resources (e.g. avail of sensors and affectors). - - - Output. - - - (IDEF) parameters for Process: - Induce target to use up resources at wrong time or place. - Input. - - -
1.6.a - Meaning (Logical Fallacy 01.) Hasty generalization from insufficient sample / data. -
1.6.b - Problem solving overgeneralize (use of general characteristic of inhomog group). (Overgeneralization of statistical base.) -
1.6.c - Linguistic processing population stereotype (non-use of gen char of homog group) -
1.6.c.a - Inference - -
1.6.c.b - Parsing - -
1.6.c.c - Verbal representation - -
1.6.c.d - Semantics - -
1.6.d - - sweeping generalization (without taking into account special circumstances--reverse direction from overgeneralization). -
1.6.e - - Fallacy of composition (if true for each member, then true for the group as an entity) (Logical Fallacy 09). -
1.6.f - - Fallacy of division (if true for group as a entity, then true for each member) (Logical Fallacy 10). -
1.6.f.aa - - Statistical average for group applies to each member. -
1.8 WORKING MEMORY PROCESSES (e.g., 1. STM with 'seven plus-or-minus two' slots; 2. Spreading activation theory with working memory as an 'illuminated' or 'activated' part of LTM). STM Memorial Comparison Process (e.g. Comparison of input with STM contents.) - -
1.8.3 Info storage processes (to STM). - - -
1.8.5 Retention and forgetting processes (info loss, especially before LTM storage). - Induce info loss before storage in LTM. - Decay of info with time. - Wait for info to decay with time. - Info interference. - - - Information overload. - Overload working memory with relevant information. - Discard of irrelevant or obsolete information. - Induce belief that info is irrelevant or obsolete. - Interference with retention (rehearsal) process. - Give competing task to interfere with rehearsal process. -
1.8.8 COGNITIVE SYSTEM's WORKING MEMORY (STM) IMAGES. (Also see 8.8. LTM: INTERNAL IMAGES.) - - - WORKING IMAGE: GOAL STATES - - - WORKING IMAGE: CURRENT STATE / SITUATION - - - World STATE (environment, ...). - - - Current STATE / situation and PROCESSES. - Provide an alternative explanation (or 'cover') to mislead target regarding the purpose of current processes, e.g., regarding the means of obtaining information. Psychics sometimes use the 'one-ahead' method (claiming to be verifying one message while actually reading the next) to simulate reading of sealed messages by psychic powers. Current context. - - - Spacial context. - - - Temporal context. - - - - - Induce desired action by creating incorrect context and thereby making the desired action appropriate rather than inappropriate. Trojan horse (discard war context for peace context). In a 'Mission Impossible' TV episode, a prisoner is induced to believe that he has regained consciousness in a post- holocaust world and is therefore no longer bound by his prior loyalties and reasons for keeping secrets his captors needed. - - Artifice: manipulate context to make a lie more believable. - - - Influence target by using ceremony & setting (Logical Fallacy 21). (E.g., by persuasion, affecting emotions, goals, priorities, scheduling, etc. See section 1.1.) In a 'Ghost Show,' darkness, special effects, and the lack of familiar context can make one feel strange and spooky. WORKING IMAGE: HISTORY / RECENT PAST - - - Significance of past / current events. - - - WORKING IMAGE: PREDICTED / PROJECTED FUTURE STATES (e.g., outcomes for alternative options). (see Payoff Matrix; Evaluate / Predict). - - -
1.8.a - Capacity limited to five 'chunks' - -
1.8.a.aa - Decay of info within about 30 seconds - -
1.8.a.bb - Interference by other info - -
2.0 - CONTROLLER is a single channel processor which: - -
2.0.a - has limited capacity - -
2.0.b - directs info processing resources - -
2.0.c - itself requires info processing resources - -
2.0.d - is affected by motivation and emotion - -
2.0.e - Other Processing Characteristics: - -
2.0.e.a - speed - -
2.0.e.b - timing and coordination - -
2.1.1 ENERGY. - - -
2.1.2 TIME. - - -
2.1.3 SPACE. - - - CHANNELS (interfaces at which CONTROLLER controls info flow). Controls info flow at interfaces; access to Controller Buffer, STM, LTM, and Sensory and Affector Buffers. - - CONTROLLER-Buffer / LTM Interface. - - - Info type: commands & programmed routines for CONTROLLER. - - - EXEC-Working-Memory / LTM Interface. - - - Info type: varied. - - - SENSOR-buffer / Working-Memory Interface. - - - Info type: Sensor input data. - - - AFFECTOR-buffer / LTM Interface. - - - Info type: Commands & routines for affector output. Output coding for affectors - - - Message generation and encription to indicators. - - - Motor patterns; speech articulation patterns. - - - Inclusion of unintended information (info leaks). - - - Errors and delays. - -
2.2.1 EMOTIONS. - - -
2.2.2 PROCESSES. Routine requirements to inspect STM and SENSOR BUFFER for new info, and to process this info (before it is lost). See list of processes in EXEC 1.6 'Fundamental Processes'. - - -
2.3 Control info processing strategy; & distribute processing resources required for info flow and processing. - - -
2.3.1 Select processing strategy. Selects Processing Strategy. - - UTILIZE EXEC / K-USING MANAGER processes which consider: - - - goals. - - - priorities. - - - motivation. - - - alternative available processing strategies. - - - - - Teach (brainwash) a new (automatic) process and then capitalize on the new behavior. - - - Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning to produce conditioned reflex (e.g., by using fear, shock, etc). - - - Operant conditioning (shaping a behavior by rewarding the closest occuring behavior whenever it occurs). - - - Capitalize on non-lateral thinking; get target committed to a reasonable but wrong interpretation, thus preventing recognition of correct interpretation. Building security guards detect an alarm or noise. On arrival at the point of the disturbance target discover a cat which obviously caused the problem. This assumption keeps the guards from looking for and finding the real intruder. availability of processing resources (see 2.1.). - - - - - Allow insufficient processing time. - - - Induce target to allot insufficient processing time. - - - Distort target's time sense. (e.g., induce emotions; confuse, panic, make busy, make enjoyable). - Affected by: - - - Dependence on preprogrammed, automatic, habitual, subconscious, (inflexible) processes. - Induce / capitalize on the inflexible use of habitual or automatic processes by: - - - Having target invoke the incorrect one of two processes with identical beginnings. When driving to location A, which entails driving a portion of the driver's usual route home, the driver inadvertently takes the turn to his home. - - Having target invoke a usually appropriate process, for a particular, inappropriate situation. Following notice of change in meeting location, driver inadvertently starts driving to its usual location. - - Having target invoke, and then fail to stop a longer process, only the first part of which is required. A person returns from his morning shower to his previously arranged breakfast, only to find that the bread he had put in the toaster for later toasting is already cooked and cold. Dependence on external guidance & influence (see also & - - - Willingness to expend resources to obtain info. - - - Distribution of proc resources required by task. - - - Discomfort (physical; mental). - - -
2.3.1.A - - Manipulate target's information processing strategy or (automatic) problem solving procedure. 'The horse raced past the barn fell.' While reading that sentence, most people use a processing strategy which commits them to interpreting 'raced' as the main verb. Hence, when target see the word 'fell,' target are surprised and cannot easily reinterpret the meaning as, 'The horse (the one which was raced past the barn) fell.'
2.3.1.B - - Induce target to apply wrong processing strategy; e.g., induce target to commit himself to a particular strategy, and thereby lose flexibility, before he has sufficient information to select the correct strategy. Riddles: How many two cent stamps in a dozen? How much is 6 divided by 1 / 2?
2.3.1.B.a - - Provide obvious but incorrect processing goal. Riddle: Pronounce 'folk'. Pronounce the word for the white of an egg. Pronounce the word for the yellow of an egg.
2.3.1.B.b - - Provide, or provide data which induces, obvious but incorrect proc rule or strategy. -
2.3.1.B.b.aa - - Provide large amount of info to support wrong strategy, to direct attention away from right one. Riddle: 'As I was going to St. Ives I met a man with 7 wives; each wife had 7 sacks; each sac had 7 cats; each cat had 7 kitts; kitts, cats, sacks, wives; how many were going to St Ives?' Ans: 1.
2.3.1.B.c - - Induce processing strategy which discards or fails to recognize and utilize relevant info. Math riddle: Provide data of boarding and off-loading of passengers for a bus, stop by stop. After a number of stops ask, not how many people are on the bus, but how many stops the bus made.
2.3.1.B.d - - Lead target away from correct proc rule or strategy. -
2.3.1.a - Encoding processes - -
2.3.1.a.aa - Level of detail (F / NF) - -
2.3.1.a.bb - Code forming / code using - Probable bias for code using strategies vs lengthy code forming (learning) strategies - -
2.3.1.b - Automatic processes vs controlled processes - -
2.3.1.b.aa - Novel vs familiar data - -
2.3.1.b.bb - Flexible vs inflexible - -
2.3.1.c - Selection of reference information - -
2.3.1.d - External influence - -
2.3.2 Assign processing resources to customers. - - -
2.3.3 Implement info processing strategy. Implementation of processing strategy - -
2.3.3.a - Encoding processes (decoding from indicators to message; analyze, interpret, validate, evaluate, screen evaluation) - -
2.3.3.a.aa - Chunking - -
2.4.2 Directs processing resources in controlling info selection (INFO SELECTION & SELECTIVE ATTENTION). Controls ATTENTION PROCESSES Control or limit target's information input. - Percent engaged - Manipulate or capitalize on percent attention is engaged. - Disengaged (relaxed; attention not attracted) - RELAX Attention. - - - Create belief that analysis is unnecessary. - - - Seem above suspicion. - - - Seem not worth attention or evaluation ('be natural'). - - - - The little shepherd boy cried 'wolf' so often that when the wolf really did show up no one believed him. - - Seem innocuous, esp. completely outside or contradicting target's expectations. To use a low-technology weapon delivery system such as a balloon, light aircraft, or sailboat which are unexpected and seem innocuous. - - Create belief nothing much or unusual is happening (de-emphasis). - - - Fit target's image of situation & context (keep emphasis and overall balance within expected range). - - - Simulate background. To signal one another covertly, indians some-times used bird calls. Such signals could avoid notice because target seemed to be, or blended in with, usual background noises. - - Simulate an irrelevant event. - - - Change target's image of situation and context so that desired deceptive event, alerting event, or alerting cessation of an event will fit (preconditioning; establish potential alerting condition as common place) (e.g., anesthetize defenses; hold regular military maneuvers or demonstrations). Preceeding Normandy landings the Allies had many intermitent periods of radio silence so the radio silence preceeding the actual invasion would not alert the Germans. - - Modify, in advance, background, irrelevant or relevant event, or many events to look like deceptive event. - - - Increase false alarm rate to excess so alarms ignored. - - - Utilize a rhythmical timing pause; ie, capitalize on target's natural tendency to assume there is little happening on the off-beat. - - - Create boredom (anticipation of nothing happening). - - - By repetition and monotony. -. Often, three times is about right, and five times seems endless. -. Metrically; pace & rhythm are important. - - - Implication (imply a method; imply subsequent proceedings). - - - Create belief that analysis is complete. - - - Event is completed ('natural conclusion'). also The use of a simulated assassination attempt as a decoy to misdirect attention from the real assassination attempt. - - target believes he can adequately predict future events. Some members of a particular religious group believe that, in relatively few years, the earth's magnetic field will be too weak for man to survive. This belief, however, is based on overextrapolation of the current temporal pattern, ignoring the fact that the earth's magnetic field strength is cyclical. - - create a pattern, e.g., by repetition. - - - imply a well-known procedure. - - - target is no longer attending because he has already examined the object (e.g. before covert substitution). - Partially engaged - Control processing effort needed for detailed examination (See also Divide Attention). - - - Increase required processing. - - - have key item be one of many. In 'Raiders of the Lost Ark,' Marion was hidden in a basket identical to many others in the marketplace; and the ark was stored in a warehouse in a crate along with thousands of similar crates. Prior to D-Day the Allies sent many fake messages along with the real ones. - - misfile item. - - - Decrease required processing. - - - Induce target to make a quick exam & move on. - - - Capitalize on target's low level of motivation (q.v.). - - - Manipulate target's pattern recognition criterion. - Fully engaged - - - Overloaded - Overload target's processing resources. - - - - In WWII, to prevent the Germans from discovering the true D-Day landing site, the Allies 'leaked' false plans for landings at points covering most of the continent. - - - A claims approver was successful in getting required insurance company signatures on fictitious claims because he pushed them through the system during a period of high volume and high personnel turnover when individual cases were not carefully reviewed. - - Emphasize key points we want target to remember (e.g., by using timing, routining). - - - Feed target info we want target to appreciate. - Where directed - Manipulate (control) target's attention, & capitalize on where it is directed (e.g., misdirection). - Shift center of attention; Attract; DIVERT - - - - - Shift or attract target's attn to something we want target to find and appreciate. - - - DIVERT all of target's attention to something to prevent target from attending to the correct means to a goal, to thinking laterally, or to a deceptive event. Use successive diversions, each of which covers the deceptive preparation for the one which follows it. - - - provide alternative goals or means (see EXEC) - - - Propose impossible task or illusionary solution (e.g., to use up target's time or processing resources until it's too late); (refuse to accept less than perfection) (Logical Fallacy 44). - - - Simulate a relevant event, especially a high- interest event or activity, or the presence of an important item or person. Or exaggerate the importance of an irrelevant event (Logical Fallacy 40 -- red herring). - - - Induce or capitalize on target's belief that his enemy is a third party rather than us, especially when we pretend to be target's friend ( - - - Attract target's attn to desired info by providing incidental clues for target to follow. - - - Use an irrelevant argument or proof (Logical Fallacy 55 --irrelevant thesis) to exaggerate and call attention to an irrelevant point and away from the relevant one. Scott advertised that its paper towels were heavier than its competitor's towels, implying that target, therefore, performed better. - - Types of diversion: - - - External to the event (digression). - - - Integral to the event: - - - Switch (sidetrack). -. Should wait for the right cover. - - - Mask (screen secret events from target's view). - - - Disguise (dual purpose). -. Having target properly motivated to expect the disguise is key. - - - Pointing (pause- action- pause; make secret move during the action). -. Timing and smooth performance are key; pauses are on the downbeat, the action on the upbeat. - - - Climax (use the climax of one event to hold target's attention away from the deceptive preparation for the next event). - HOLD (maintain) - HOLD target's attention. - - - Substitute fake and covertly remove original or vice versa. - - - without lapse of target's attention. - - - utilize continuity during brief interruption of observation (see EXEC, also). A common action in movies is for a pursued car to drive into an alley, only to reappear immediately and escape in a different direction. The pursuers, close behind, are now being led astray by a different car, the original having remained in the alley. Field of view (focus) - - - Widen; DIVIDE attn (DISTRACT) - - - Among relevant events ('integral DISTRACTION') - DIVIDE (DISTRACT) target's attention among relevant events (e.g., feints, negotiations, etc.) ('integral distraction'). - - - contradiction. Prior to D-Day (Operation Overlord) the Allies presented the Germans with information indicating many different locations for the forthcoming attack to divide their resources. - - confusion (def: uncertainty as to what data is relevant, or how to analyze data); create a mild commotion. Psychic Uri Geller sometimes creates confusion verbally and with actions (The Amazing Randi has dubbed this the 'Geller Tornado') in order to prevent a social group audience from closely watching his sleight-of-hand. - - flustering (def: utilization of processing resources by emotion). - - - by flattery. - - - by accusation. - - - perplexity (def: uncertainty as to meaning of puzzling analysis results, or how to continue complicated data analysis; due to something which is complicated, involved, or puzzling). - Among irrelevant events ('external DISTRACTION') - DIVIDE target's attention among irrelevant events ('external distraction'). (E.g., provide a brief, but well- timed incident which temporarily demands target's attention). A pickpocket can use a well-timed comment or collision to hide his deed. - - Startling (e.g., explosion). A guard standing watch is lured to help those in an 'accident'. While he does so someone sneaks past his post. - - Incidental (e.g., girl on stage) (a natural or expected event). - Narrow - Direct target's attention to specific aspect (e.g., a hazard), so others ignored or target loses overall perspective. - - - so target misses big picture (forest for trees). - - - so target loses temporal perspective. - - - Factors: appearance, size, shape, intensity, color, frequency, & other attributes of stimulus; spacial and temporal magnitude of movement; contrast; novelty; dominant member of set (e.g., Ace of Spades stands out in a group of cards); compromise (e.g., a person selects the only member of a group which does not stand out). target's desires and needs; interesting activity. -
2.4.2.a - Determines allocation of limited processing resources to Controller, EXEC, STM, LTM, sensory, and affector processes. Supply information which supports one's hypothesis, especially in large quantities, and omit the rest. (See -
2.4.2.b - Percent engaged - -
2.4.2.c - Where directed - -
4.3 SYNTHETIC / CREATIVE / K-BUILDING PROCEDURES / THINKING MODE. This thinking mode handles the building of the knowledge structures used by other parts of the cognitive system. It uses processes which produce each state description or process found elsewhere in the system, except those which are innate. This section is not developed, the principles being listed with other, corresponding parts of the system. Controls: K-BUILDING PRINCIPLES have been combined with the K-USING MANAGER principles in this edition. -
4.3.a - Info selection from external and internal sources. (See also 6.3.2. CONTROLLER.) - -
4.3.b - Info format and modality - -
4.3.c - Reference information - -
4.4.0 General effectiveness of problem-solving processes. - - - Speed - - - Timing - - - Reliability - - - Criticality - - -
4.4.1 LOCAL GOAL PURSUIT & PROBLEM SOLVING PROCEDURE. - - - FORMULATE PROBLEM & (RE-)EXPRESS IN INTERNAL FORM: (Note: Relating EXT WORLD to INT IMAGE is fundamental.) - - - Establish / Refer to GOAL (including actual and perceived intent, priorities). Planning. Determines: Affect / capitalize on target's goals & priorities (Note: evaluate and predict target's goals). - Goals (e.g., setting) - - Time factors (constraints on achieving goal) - - - Long term - - - Intermediate term - - - Short term (see 2.3. CONTROLLER: processing strategy) - - - Specificity - - - General - - - Specific - - - - - Induce target to establish a goal or subgoal which: - - - is new, and of equal or higher priority. - - - works against target's intent. - - - pursues (apparently accidentally) sacrificial bait which lures target into disadvantageous position. - - - is non-optimal. - - - due to target's compromise with our falsely stated goal. Bargaining agent sets higher price than he wants so final compromise meets his original goal. - - is irrelevant or a decoy. If the Russians were to make the U.S. believe that Soviet research into ESP were paying off when in fact it was not, it might induce the U.S. to expend funds on fruitless research. - - is an additional concern. - - - is defensive rather than offensive. - - - Resurrect a previously satisfied goal of higher priority. A gambit (sacrifice) in chess can eliminate the defense created by ones opponent and force the opponent to rebuild. - - Induce or capitalize on target's efforts by having their ultimate effect be toward a higher level goal we desire. - - - Induce target to commit a partial investment toward an initial goal, and then induce target to change his goal to a different one we prefer, e.g., by allowing target to see that his original goal was not worthwhile (bait and switch). - - goals, subgoals - - - priorities among goals - - - means to goals, authority, resources - - - time schedule - - Establish / Refer to INITIAL or CURRENT STATE (see also 8.8. LTM INTERNAL IMAGES of COGNITIVE SYSTEM's and OTHER SYSTEM's physical & mental condition) (see also EXEC 1.6.1.). Perceived story or scenario - - Assumptions. - - - - - Go outside the subconscious assumptions target has. - - - Violate target's assumption that what is trying to avoid him will remain out of his sight, for example put item or info where it is obvious, and therefore not expected. In E. A. Poe's 'The Purloined Letter,' the letter is placed in plain sight in the maildrop where it was completely overlooked. - - Have sought item or solution outside normally considered set (or involve additional spatial dimension, make solution dynamic rather than static, etc). In Agatha Christie's mystery, 'The Murder of Roger Ackroyd,' the murderer is the writer. Puzzle: How can one rearrange 6 coins in the form of a 't' to form two intersecting rows with an equal number coins in each? Solution (which involves an additional dimension): stack two coins at intersection. - - Lead target to overlook the correct solution by making others' actions or his task seem illogical or unnecessary if he knew what the correct solution was. (e.g., by an action which is 'bold', or completely unexpected; 'hutzpah', nerve, gall.) In a role-playing game, the player was sent out to find someone (the king) who turned out to be himself. In murder mysteries, the killer often makes himself appear to be a victim to remove suspicion from himself. - - Challenge target on the same point we are using deceptively. Shopper shoplifts and then requests a refund for the product. If he fails to get it, he takes the product and leaves. - - See re erroneous automatic assumptions. - - Capitalize on cultural or popular values, biases, & prejudices (Logical Fallacy 25 & Logical Fallacy 36). (See also 8.8.1.) - - - Get target to accept an assumption which presumes the existance of something imaginary. (Note: counterdeception is difficult because target must identify ALL his assumptions.) Puzzle: An electric train travels north at 10m / sec; the wind is easterly at 5 m / sec; in what direction does the smoke travel? Ans: Electric trains don't make smoke. (The smoke & the problem are imaginary; the solution is irrelevant.) - - Get target to accept the erroneous assumption of a third party by providing intent information from the third party's viewpoint. A person goes to bed at eleven pm and sets his alarm to wake him at noon. How many hours sleep will he get? - - Induce / capitalize on target's failure to scrutinize basic or implicit assumptions; to 'take things for granted'. (See also - - - Use unproven 'facts' to prove something (Logical Fallacy 52.). - - - Circular reasoning (Logical Fallacy 51.). - - - Use a leading question, which assumes its own answer (Logical Fallacy 63.) - - - Complex question, which assumes a fact related to its answer (Logical Fallacy 54.). 'Have you stopped beating your wife?' One's response may be led astray unless he realizes that the question assumes he has been beating his wife. Hypotheses. - - - - - Provide alternative hypotheses for target so target needs to consider them in addition to, or (Logical Fallacy 30 'The Good Reason') will consider them instead of, the correct one. - - Protect info sources by providing plausible alternatives. - - - Implicitly provide an alternative question to consider (e.g., consider means rather than the end: Instead of arguing against something, give an excuse why it can't be done (Logical Fallacy 58)). - - - Get target committed to an incorrect hypothesis (e.g., by emphasizing a false 'fact'). During WWII, Hitler withheld reinforcements from Normandy for days after the Allies had landed because he was convinced that the Allies were going to land at Pas de Calais, and, therefore, that this landing was a ruse. Perceived probability of deception. - Capitalize on target's belief about the probability of deception: - - - Induce / capitalize on the belief that there is more deception than there is. - - - Capitalize on behavior introduced by suspicion. -- use 'reverse psychology': tell truth in a way such that target believes it is not true. The ruse 'look behind you!' to distract an opponent became such a cliche', particularly in fiction, that the standard response became to refuse to do so. Thus it was then possible to prevent someone from looking behind him simply by saying 'look behind you!' - - Slow target's decisions & actions by making him overly cautious. - - - Induce / capitalize on the belief that there is less deception than there is (target may be less vulnerable if he knows he has been deceived before). - Measures of confidence in achieving goal. - - - External monitoring (FEEDBACK input). - - - - - Induce desired decision based on partial information: - - - Provide info supporting desired decision first. - - - Omit info: - - - opposing desired decision. - - - to produce a biased picture. - - - Suppress quantification info: omit 'some' or 'all' (Logical Fallacy 47). - - - Induce target to fill in own info. - - - provide ambiguous info (e.g., omit units; ambiguous written letters with more than one interpretation depending on context.) NOTE: An unsophisticated target (such as a child) routinely observes more general detail than a sophisticated target (such as an adult) because he has not yet learned to fill in as much information from previous experience. His attention shifts more easily: it is easier to misdirect, but is also more likely to shift again to the 'wrong place'. 'THE CAT', in which the H and the A are written in an identical, intermediate form which can be interpreted as either. - - provide ambiguous language structure (e.g., target understands first meaning; second one is true; literal use of figure of speech, or vice versa; ambiguous sentence structure, accent or stress, word order, or punctuation (Logical Fallacy 49)). Q: 'I have two coins totaling $.30, and one is not a quarter. What are target?' Ans: One is a nickel; the OTHER one is the quarter. Q: 'One would cost 20 cents; twelve would cost 40 cents; nine-hundred and twelve would cost 60 cents. What are we buying?' Ans: Street numbers. - - unwarranted extrapolation (e.g., on the basis of a partial cycle of a periodic function). - - - emphasize a characteristic of an item to induce target to falsely infer that it is a unique characteristic which does not apply to the items in the complement set. A brewery advertised that target washed their bottles with live steam. Consumers falsely inferred that their competitors did not do likewise. - - Provide part of surface structure to imply false deep structure (e.g., quote out of context). - - - Induce desired decision by providing contradictory information (Logical Fallacy 53) (e.g., words used in opposition to meaning, such as Orwell's 1984 slogan 'War is peace'). - DEFINE CURRENT PROBLEM-SOLVING STATUS & PROBLEM SPACE: - - - Define Problem-Solving Status (COMPARE images: goal state & initial / current state). - - - Define Problem Space. - - - Assess Resource Requirements. - - - External Resources. - - - Internal Resources. - - - K, K-Types, K-Sources, Attributes (see 5.1. STRUCTURE OF WORLD-IMAGE KNOWLEDGE & BELIEF). - - - Assess Available Capabilities and Processes. - - - See section 1.2. MENTAL CONDITION: Motivation, self-image, etc. - - - Process IDEF parameters: - - - Input. - - - Controls & Constraints on processes; autonomy (see also & - - - Resources (e.g. avail of sensors and affectors). - - - Output. - - - SOLVE PROBLEM. - Abandonment of discussion (Logical Fallacy 45). (We abandon discussion to lead target away from further pursuit of a line of reasoning. We claim discussion is unnecessary, irrelevant, indecent, immoral, unpatriotic, etc.; or abuses target using ad hominum; etc.) (Example of Abandonment of Discussion.) A psychic states: 'I don't care what people think, I KNOW my powers are genuine.' Generate & Plan Options (means to goals). - Induce target to establish means which: - - Relate states & processes. - - - - PREDICT effects of processes & other resources on states. - - - - Plan go / no-go conditions. - - - - Plan preplanned responses. - - - - - are non-optimal (require more work). The false shortcut was a standard ruse in old films and cartoons. Instead of being quicker, it took much longer. - - work against target's intent. - - - lead in wrong direction (ask wrong question; solve wrong problem; false lead; red herring). - Evaluate Options. (E.g., by using procedure 4.4.2. Payoff Matrix Evaluation.) - - - Generate, select, & employ standards and Measures of Effectiveness (MOE's). - Anesthetize critical faculties (e.g. by flattery). - MONITOR and evaluate PAST effects of PROCESSES on STATES using FEEDBACK. (Compare current state with previous states; Evaluate appropriateness.) - - - Previous goals. - - - Previous processes. - - - Previous choices. - - - Progress toward goal. - - - - - Demonstrate initial success (e.g., a pyramid scheme; a 'Ponzi' scheme). - - Reinforce target's belief that he is attaining his goal. - - - Induce target to believe the goal he seeks has already been achieved (may be processed by CONTROLLER). - - - found info he seeks. In Isaac Asimov's 'Second Foundation,' the organization called 'the second foundation' allows a large number of their people to be discovered and eliminated so that the rest of the galaxy, who wanted to be free of them, would presume them destroyed. Thus, the organization could continue its operations. - - found info source or channel he seeks. - - - has already 'observed carefully'. - - - has already seen through the deception. - - mission accomplished. - - - goal is obsolete. - FEEDBACK: Performance coupling (degree; value). - - - - - Provide target with false feedback where none exists, and use it to control target's actions or responses. Experimenter provides subject with false biofeedback (e.g., heartrate) to influence male subject's attraction to females in pictures. Effects were not removed by debriefing. - - Induce target to interpret (uncoupled) data as feedback bearing on a decision. - Validate CURRENT picture / situation. - - - - - Level of detail that target will examine is crucial, and depends on the scale (size) of the deception, target's available resources, and target's level of suspicion. To provide target with picture complete down to smallest detail (e.g., in case target checks): - - - Play role exactly as if it were true (viz a theatrical act). - - - Cover all sensors. Fake military maneuvers may include dummy radio messages, sound effects, etc. - - Allow, or subtly induce, target to evaluate data critically where or when there's nothing to find which will weaken his (deceived) picture. - Predict FUTURE outcomes (use context, models, etc., to generate expectation). - Induce target to make incorrect predictions, and, therefore, to have false expectations. - - - by providing faulty input data. - Evaluate Options. - - - With respect to absolute criteria, assumptions, and K-validity. - - - Relative evaluation (comparison) with respect to optimal / best-fit. - - - Cost / effectiveness evaluation. - - - Choose / Prioritize Options. - - - Decision threshold or criterion. - - - Prioritize options. - Induce target to change priorities among goals - STATE DESCRIPTIONS: Goals & Subgoals. - - - PROCESSES: Means to Solutions. - - - - - to non-optimal priorities. -
4.4.2 PAYOFF-MATRIX Evaluation. Set up a table which includes the following: - - - Conditions or events. - - - Possible conditions or events. - Assuming a dichotomy for a continuum of possibilities. - - - All or nothing mistake (assuming one must have all or none) (Logical Fallacy 11). Fallacy: One is either knowledgeable or ignorant. (In fact, one may be knowledgeable about some topics and ignorant about others.) - - False dilemma (assuming one must have condition A or B, but not both; that only one can be right) (Logical Fallacy 12). - - - Falsely imply A & B make up the entire set of possibilities. - - - Then convince target that C is true because both A and B imply C. - - - 'The wicked alternative'-- since one alternative is obviously wrong, another, falsely assumed to be the only other choice, must be right (Logical Fallacy 42). - - - Choose A & B so target selects the one we desire because it is the lesser of two evils. - - - Claiming that, since one can't prove A, NOT-A must be true (Logical Fallacy 57). - Probabilities of conditions or events. - - - Possible alternative decisions / choices for a given condition or event. - - - Investment (Cost, effort, manpower, material, logistics, weapons, to pursue alternative). - Make target work hard for partial recovery of loss to change his perception of the possibilities, and to divert his energy from his original complete-recovery goal. - Possible outcomes (e.g., hit, miss, FA, CR). - - - Payoff value for each possible outcome (event x decision). - - - Positive components. - Use positive social motivating factors (see Levi's ads constantly emphasize how long Levi's pants have existed, trying to make them appear to be an American tradition. Negative components. - - - - - Decrease perceived value of outcome. - - - Make seem obsolete. - - - New situation. - - - Use negative social motivating factors to make target unwilling to oppose an idea. - Probability of outcome, for a given choice. - - - - - Make outcome in target's favor have zero probability without target's knowledge. You win if this ear of corn has an odd number of rows of kernels; Otherwise, I win; O.K.? (Result is always even.) - - Shift target's matrix probability values by a rigged example, especially one in which his skepticism causes him to miss a 'genuine opportunity'. In a western saloon, a miner openly sells his confederate a gold brick at a ridiculously low price. Others, skeptical, tease the confederate who proves the gold brick is indeed genuine. When the miner keeps his promise to return with many more (fakes), he sells them all. - - Change perceived false alarm (FA) rate (cry wolf). - - Research target's needs and offer something target needs, or that we can persuade target to want. - - - Fabricate an imaginary entity that target wants. - - - Show target apparent results of selecting alternatives. - - - - Many things sold today have planned obsolesence: e.g., even though the item may be just as good now as when it was new, we are made to believe it is worth much less just because it is old or out of style. Expected (overall average) payoff for each possible decision. - Establish good associations; appeal to tradition (or faith?) ('because it has worked, been good, been done in the past, it should be done now') (Logical Fallacy 23). - Actual expected payoff values. - - - Perceived expected payoff values. - Misrepresent our or third party's attitude towards value of something in order to influence target's perception of its value. Tom Sawyer made it look like it was so much fun that he induced others to pay him to whitewash his fence for him. Hope (see EXEC Motivation). - - - Perceived risk, peril. - If target wants to maintain the status quo in a hostile situation, and we make confusing signals, then target will probably procrastinate unless he perceives risk in waiting, in which case he will probably start early action. - - - Bluff. Disguise as target's high ranking officer. Demand entry saying if target's guard delays you, he will be in 'big trouble'.
4.4.2.A - - Change actual payoff matrix without target's knowledge. -
4.4.2.B - - Change (manipulate) target's perceived payoff matrix as a function of time. -
4.4.2.B.a - - Planned obsolence. Clothing may become unusable for its original purpose while still practically new due to changes in fashion. Mechanical parts may be designed to fail after limited use.
4.4.2.C - - Manipulate / misrepresent target's perceived payoff matrix to control decisions. -
4.4.2.C.a - - get initial commitment (e.g., of money, time, involvement) before modifying payoff matrix. -
4.4.2.C.b - - Also Claim imminent loss is likely (e.g. emergency exists) (false warning). -
4.4.2.C.c - - Claim imminent change in supply, price, or reward. -
4.4.2.C.d - - Manipulate impact of changes in matrix values. -
4.4.2.C.d.aa - - Control info flow to target about changes. -
4.4.3 ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES, TOOLS, THEORIES, MODELS, ETC. - - - Mathematical tools and procedures. - - - Formulas; models & simulations; procedures, algorithms, & routines. - - - Logical & intuitive reasoning & judgement. (NOTE: Some intuition may be considered as an EXEC function involving a less conscious or less rigorous application of analytical tools without extensive MANAGER involvement. Perhaps it employs 'table look-ups' made possible by previous experience.) - - - Logical reasoning and judgement. - - - - - 'Undistributed middle'. Unwarranted transfer of a characteristic via an intermediate set (Logical Fallacy 46); e.g.: - - - (1) A is B, C is B, so A is C. (e.g., guilt by association.) - - - (2) A is B, some B is C, so all C are A. - - - (3) For further examples, see logical fallacies references (e.g., Fernside). - - - Unequal negation (Logical Fallacy 61): - - - No A are B, No C are A, so all C are B. - - - All A are B, All B are C, so some C are not A. - - - Non sequitur - - - (Claiming falsely that A implies B) (Logical Fallacy 48). - - - False converse (A implies B, so B implies A). - - - Incorrect conditional (A implies B, so NOT-A implies NOT-B). - - - Incorrect alternatives (A or B, so A implies NOT-B). - - - Claiming that the exception proves the rule (Logical Fallacy 60). - - - The 'thin, entering wedge' (Logical Fallacy 59). The domino' theory. Once allowed to start, it will not be stoppable as scheduled. 'Give them an inch and target'll take a mile. - Intuitive judgement & estimation biases. Intuitive estimation biases: Capitalize on intuitive estimation biases. - Sampling bias. - - - - - If something normally present is not normally observed and is believed absent, claim we caused it and instruct target to observe it. (e.g., focus attention on a particular feature, such as a match between two events.) (See also Belief: Oddmatches). A psychic on the radio told listeners that if target concentrated along with him target would create unusual effects around their houses such as stopping clocks, starting broken watches, and bending keys. Many called in to verify that such effects were indeed occuring. Subsequently it was revealed that the man was not a psychic, but was demonstrating how psychics can take credit for causing amazing effects by taking advantage of peoples' common failure to notice everyday occurences. - Personal, personality, mental, & physical predispositions See characteristics. - - Innate, learned, preprogrammed by others See Subjective Validation; & Oddmatches. - - Statistical estimation Humans are poor at estimating combinations of events. - - Poor at Bayesian statistics: - - - Often employs unrepresentative sampling - - - Incorrectly estimates probability of events - - - Makes oddmatches due to failure to know size of target or sampled sets - - - Notices events but fails to notice non-events - - - Subject to subjective validation of a hypothesis (Ignore data which does not fit; Use data which does) - - - - Humans are poor at estimating randomness (e.g., target tend avoid repeated numbers when generating a random string of numbers). - - - Overconfidence increases with increasing odds, such that an amount bet increases too fast and long-run expected losses increase. - - - Induce / capitalize on target's use of intuition instead of logic. - - - Falsely conclude a parameter is significant (e.g., by 'lying with statistics'). - - - The use of non-independent samples as though target were independent sources of information may lead to overconfidence. - - - Assuming dependence of independent data (Logical Fallacy 37); i.e., the assumption of relationships which don't actually exist. (Logical Fallacy #37.) In roulette, gamblers may incorrectly assume that after a run of black the ball is more likely to come up red. - - - Uri Geller routinely amazes his audiences by discerning figures sketched by a spectator. In one such case, he uses the knowledge that, when asked to draw a simple geometrical shape, a high percentage of people will draw a triangle. People are generally unaware of this fact. - - - Fallacy according to Roosevelt's new deal policy: If the individual must spend within his budget, so must the federal government. - - - 'Women are weaker than men' is true on the average, but not true for many specific cases. - - - The belief that an individual is entitled to a refund from the insurance company because he (as an individual) has a good claims record. Comparison. - - - - - Improper comparison. - - - compare noncomparables ('apples & oranges'). - - - look at gross numbers rather than proportions, or vice versa. - - - refer to 'all else being equal' when all else is not equal. - - - due to improper data reduction. - - - change emphasis by comparing something with 'all others' when there are significant others worthy of individual consideration. - - - Improper scales and baselines. - - - omit or use improper (e.g., non-zero) baselines. - - - comparative rather than absolute basis. - - - fail to normalize. - - - Change scale between graphs. - - - pick scales (absolute number, percent, linear, logarithmic, etc.) to emphasize desired relationship. - - - Omit relevant info; e.g., give mean, but no distribution. - - - - In a Pyramid scheme (e.g., a chain letter), the number of people required increases geometrically as the scheme progresses, so that the victim fails to be paid off because there are too few people in the 'world' to accommodate the scheme. The victim may also be mislead as to the probability of each individual perpetuating the scheme.
4.8.8 Available memories are LTM, STM, & sensor & affector buffers (q.v.). - - -
6.0 General - - -
6.0.A - - Emit a false signal. -
6.0.B - - Deny close observation. Anti-aircraft fire to keep enemy spotter planes high and deny them close observation. A magician controls where his audience sits.
6.111.10 - Visual Information Store (VIS) - -
6.111.10.a - Time decay in about 0.1 seconds. - -
6.111.10.b - Interference - -
6.111.7.A - - - Color reversal after-image illusions are induced by selectively fatiguing visual receptors with the complementary color.
6.121.10 - Precategorical Acoustic Store (PAS) - -
6.121.10.a - Time decay in about 2 seconds - -
6.121.10.b - Interference - -
6.1SS Passive Mode - - -
6.2SS Active Mode - - -
6.M01 Electromagnetic - - -
6.M02 Acoustic - - -
6.M03 Chemical - - -
6.M04 Skin - - -
6.M05 Acceleration & Motion - - -
6.M11 Visual - - -
6.M21 Auditory - - -
6.M31 Taste - - -
6.M32 Smell - - -
6.M41 Pressure - - -
6.M42 Temperature - - -
6.M43 Damage - - -
6.MSS Mode & Type unspecified SENSOR MODE & TYPE: - -
6.MSS.1 DETECT (SENSE) (DETECTION) Avoid detection (deny sensor input, camouflage, cover, hide, secret compartment.) -
6.MSS.1.1 Coverage area - Evade sensor coverage area (spatial & temporal) During WWII POW camp escapes, prisoners would avoid detection by moving only when the search lights were directed away from them, taking cover when the sweeps covered their area.
6.MSS.1.1.a - - Capitalize on gaps within the coverage area of which target is unaware, or which target ignores. -
6.MSS.1.2 Amplitude & S / N ratio & sensitivity threshold - Make invisible by decreasing S / N ratio (decrease S & / or increase N) to below detection threshold. -
6.MSS.1.2.1 Signal level - - -
6.MSS.1.2.1.A - - Operate below sensor absolute sensitivity threshold. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.B - - Decrease sensor sensitivity. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.B.a - - Habituation. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.B.b - - Fatigue. Optical illusions caused by fatigue (e.g., at the retinal level) include Mach bands; Hermann grid; complementary color after images (selective fatigue); halos.
6.MSS.1.2.1.B.c - - High intensity stimulus at boundaries of area of interest. In the dark, an individual standing in front of a bright light can be seen only as a silhouette, and can not be identified.
6.MSS.1.2.1.B.d - - Supersaturation of sensor. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.C - - Deflect 'illumination' so object is not illuminated. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.D - - Deflect 'illumination' so it is not returned to sensor. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.E - - Make object 'transparent'. -
6.MSS.1.2.1.F - - Change (e.g., increase) signal strength to misrepresent source characteristics (size & distance). -
6.MSS.1.2.2 Noise level - Mask (or 'jam') with: -
6.MSS.1.2.2.a - - noise. WWII Allied bombers dropped foil (chaff) to 'fog' enemy radar and keep them from obtaining an accurate fix.
6.MSS.1.2.2.b - - other stimuli. -
6.MSS.1.2.2.b.aa - - Large deliberate motion to cover smaller secret movement. -
6.MSS.1.2.2.b.bb - - Swift deliberate motion to cover slower secret movement. -
6.MSS.1.3 Sensor capacity - Use up limited sensor capacity (e.g. one shot device). -
6.MSS.1.3.a - - Trigger one-shot sensor (or alarm) so it can't detect (or warn of) the presence of a second object. In the space game Empire, in which spaceships can be made invisible, each player has a device to warn him when an enemy is within a certain range. But an invisible ship can still approach unnoticed if a visible ship also approaches at the same time and triggers the warning device first.
6.MSS.1.4 Precision (resolution, discriminability). (PRECISION / DISCRIMINATION) - -
6.MSS.1.4.1 Spacial. - Capitalize on sensor spatial discriminability limits. -
6.MSS.1.4.1.A - - Get close to and blend in with a background (or other) object (e.g., 'black art'). -
6.MSS.1.4.1.B - - Move several objects close together so target appear to be only one. -
6.MSS.1.4.1.C - - Capitalize on sensor spatial resolution limits (e.g., depth perception). -
6.MSS.1.4.2 Temporal. - Capitalize on sensor temporal discriminability limits. (E.g., sensor tracking or focusing time, observation sampling time, sensor storage time, sensory integration time). In playing the child's game 'Duck- duck- goose' under a strobe light, a runner's visual feedback is periodically delayed, inducing him to run wildly off course.6.MSS.5.2.A. Visual illusions: (1) Two parallel lines with an intersecting diagonal, the piece of the diagonal between the two parallel lines being removed from view. The remaining two parts of the diagonal appear offset. (2) Lines radiating from a point distort size of nearby squares (due to perspective effect). When two equal line segments form an inverted 'T,' the vertical one appears longer. An example of ambiguous perspective is the Necker Cube illusion, in which an outline drawing of a cube (or even a cube made of wire) can be seen as viewed from either of two positions. In one optical illusion, one stares at a fuzzy yellow ring on a crosshatch background until the ring vanishes due to retinal fatigue; in its place, instead of a void, one sees (literally) the cross hatch pattern which fills in the space where one formerly saw the ring.
6.MSS.111 - (Visual) - Eyes - -
6.MSS.121 - (Auditory) - Ears - -
6.MSS.131 - (Chemical: Taste) - Tongue - -
6.MSS.132 - (Chemical: Smell) - Nose - -
6.MSS.142 - (Skin) - Temperature - -
6.MSS.143 - (Skin) - Damage / Pain - -
6.MSS.3 PERCEIVE (SENSE) FEATURES (PRIMATIVES / CHARACTERISTICS). (Reduces (chunks) data to selected level of detail). - - -
6.MSS.3.1 Speed. - - -
6.MSS.3.2 Accuracy. - - -
6.MSS.3.2.A - - Degrade signal to decrease accuracy of feature perception. -
6.MSS.5 PERCEIVE THE WHOLE (GESTALT); Pattern recognition (e.g. by TEMPLATE MATCHING), classification, & identification. (Reduces (chunks) data to selected level of detail. See also high level processes 1.6.4. & 1.6.5. in EXEC). PATTERN ANALYSIS / RECOGNITION / CLASSIFICATION / IDENTIFICATION - -
6.MSS.5.1 Speed & Response Time. - - -
6.MSS.5.2 Accuracy. NOTE: 'ASSOCIATE', the process for the next higher level, is in EXEC. - - -
6.MSS.5.2.A - - Induce or capitalize on inaccuracies in target's perceptual processes. (See also 1.6.5. EXEC for high level processes; and 6.MSS.7 for effects due to reference values & feedback). E.g.: -
6.MSS.5.2.A.a - - Violate constancy expectancy to produce distortions of color, size, distance, form, angles, direction; e.g., size illusion induced by comparison with memory. The 'giant' actor illusion induced by using small furniture.
6.MSS.5.2.A.b - - Use systematic errors in extrapolation or perspective to induce distortions of shape or orientation. -
6.MSS.5.2.A.c - - Use spatial context to induce size changes. The 'boom-squish' illusion, in which a circle has radiating lines alternately inside and outside.
6.MSS.5.2.B - - Induce brain to provide its own sensory data to fill in for missing or ambiguous data (analogous to -
6.MSS.5.2.B.a - - Cause failure of the process. -
6.MSS.5.2.B.b - - Illusions caused by ambiguous perspective. -
6.MSS.5.2.C - - Dissimulate (simulate the absence of) something (e.g., object, capability, etc.) which is present. (Control detectable stimuli to be compatable with the absence of something, and apparently incompatable with its presence.) Provide cover. (See also 6.MSS.1. Avoid detection.) -
6.MSS.5.2.C.a - - Mask with a superset (blend with another signal). Obscure boundaries (disruptive patterns; countershading). Tigers' stripes and leopards' spots serve to break up their visual form, making them hard to detect in grass or brush.
6.MSS.5.2.C.b - - Make signal blend with background. The praying mantis blends with leaves; the walking stick with branches.
6.MSS.5.2.C.c - - Make background blend with signal. -
6.MSS.5.2.C.d - - Use a new, apparently random pattern (which target has not yet learned). -
6.MSS.5.2.C.e - - Provide data incompatible with the presence of something. -
6.MSS.5.2.D - - Simulate something (which does or doesn't exist). (May use decoys, lures, fakes (seen), shells, disguises, dummies, duplicates, positions & motions.) A carnivorous female firefly immitates the mating attraction light pattern of females of other species of fireflies.
6.MSS.5.2.D.a - - Simulate something else. -
6.MSS.5.2.D.a.aa - - impersonate. A popular ruse is to impersonate a delivery man or repair man to move about an area unnoticed or to gain access to a house.
6.MSS.5.2.D.b - - Simulate unimportant objects. -
6.MSS.5.2.D.b.aa - - disguise as one of many objects. -
6.MSS.5.2.D.c - - Simulate important objects. -
6.MSS.5.2.D.c.aa - - Simulate same (hidden) object elsewhere. During the Battle of Britain, the British constructed fake airdromes near the real ones and blacked them out just after target had been spotted by German bombers. After the first bombing wave, fires were set to simulate damage and provide markers for the second wave of bombers.
6.MSS.5.2.D.c.bb - - Simulate inputs and outputs to induce target to infer the existence of structure, content, or processes. In a pyramid scheme, or a 'Ponzi' scheme, early investors receive a handsome return on their investment. Instead of being derived from company profits, however, this money is actually that being contributed by later investors. In reality, there are no profits. But the return to previous investors encourages more and more people to invest, and the company may grow very large and appear very prosperous before its ultimate collapse.
6.MSS.5.2.D.c.cc - - Simulate something using a fake which is disposable or easily hidden. -
6.MSS.5.2.E - - Substitute / switch one object for another, especially under cover. (See continuity; 8.3.A.). -
6.MSS.5.2.E.a - - faked object for real; or defective objects for quality ones (e.g., spare parts). -
6.MSS.5.2.F - - Change features often (use substitutes) to prevent learning which features belong to the pattern. -
6.MSS.5.a - Method or algorithm - -
6.MSS.5.b - Initial low level processing - -
6.MSS.5.b.a - Automatic at lowest levels - -
6.MSS.5.b.b - Controllable at intermediate levels - -
6.MSS.5.c - level of detail - -
6.MSS.5.d - For ambiguous info, fills in info from memory pattern - -
6.MSS.7 Reference Values and Feedback. - - -
6.MSS.7.A - - Induce sensory imbalance by selective fatigue. -
6.MSS.7.B - - Induce sensory imbalance by sensory deprivation. -
6.MSS.7.B.a - - Disorient all or part of the cognitive system by denying sensory feedback / ref stimuli. -
6.MSS.7.C - - Induce / capitalize on loss or distortion of spatial reference. Optical illusions caused by a shift in reference conditions include apparent reverse motion after stopping.
6.MSS.7.D - - Induce / capitalize on loss or distortion of temporal reference (e.g., loss or distortion of sense of time during sleep or intense activity).(See also Murderer establishes alibi by resetting clocks while his witness is asleep.
6.MSS.7.E - - Induce perception of opposite characteristic by contrast effects. E.g.: -
6.MSS.7.E.a - - color contrast; -
6.MSS.7.E.b - - brightness contrast (brightness changes induced by brightness context; -
6.MSS.8 Buffer Memory. - - -
6.MSS.9 Other. - - -
6.MSS.M41 - (Skin) - Tactile - -
6.a - Inputs: signal (S), and noise (N) - -
7.0 General. - - -
7.03 - (Chemical) - GSR, sweat - -
7.05 - Muscle (Motor) - -
7.05.a - Physical movement - -
7.05.a.a - Body Language - -
7.05.b - Appearance changes - -
7.05.c - Involuntary muscle movements - -
7.05.c.a - Regular automatic (e.g., heart rate) - -
7.05.c.b - Idiosynchratic (subconsciously variable) - -
7.21 - (Acoustic) - Speech - -
7.AA Affector type (AA) specified as follows: Affector Types: - -
7.AA.01 Electromagnetic. - - -
7.AA.02 Acoustic. - - -
7.AA.03 Chemical. - - -
7.AA.05 Kinetic (Physical) (e.g., muscle). - - -
7.AA.1 DRIVE. - - -
7.AA.1.1 Coverage area. - - -
7.AA.1.2 Amplitude. - - -
7.AA.1.3 Capacity (Power). - Induce target to expend limited affector resource uselessly. Dummy ships full of balsa wood were used as decoys to induce submarines to attack, waste torpedos in continued attempts to sink them, and remain long enough to be targeted themselves.
7.AA.1.4 Precision. - - -
7.AA.1.4.1 Spacial. - - -
7.AA.1.4.2 Temporal. - - -
7.AA.21 Speech. - - -
7.AA.3.1 Speed. - - -
7.AA.3.2 Accuracy. - - -
7.AA.5 IMPLEMENT THE WHOLE (GESTALT); Pattern generation USING TEMPLATES. - Capitalize on affector's inflexible action (speed or accuracy) when driven by preprogrammed (or automatic) routine (eg, a feint). (See also Dependence on Automatic Processes.) -
7.AA.5.1 Speed & Response Time. - Capitalize on affector's speed limitations or response time (refractory period) in performing a task: An (illegal) scheme for 'borrowing' money is to cash a check on an empty account, covering it before the check clears by a check on a second empty account, and so on, and on, and on....
7.AA.5.1.a - - Influence target's free decision with a candid gesture or statement, the falseness of which will not be discovered until too late. -
7.AA.5.1.b - - Cause action from which target cannot recover in time to respond to our next action. -
7.AA.5.2 Accuracy. NOTE: 'DIRECT' (ORCHESTRATE), the process for the next higher level, is in EXEC. - - -
7.AA.7 Reference Values and Feedback. - - -
7.AA.7.A - - Cause change in reference position or equilibrium. -
7.AA.7.A.a - - fatigue selected affectors. Push your arms outward very hard against door jam for one minute. Then let them relax at your side. Although target will feel like target are remaining at your sides, target will begin to float up without conscious effort.
7.AA.7.B - - Delay feedback to make fb-dependent processes 'stutter'. Delayed auditory feedback of one's own speech makes one stutter.
7.AA.8 Buffer Memory. - - -
7.AA.9 Other. - - -
7.a - Output: signal, noise - -
8.1.1 TYPES of Info and Knowledge. - - - STATES (STATE DESCRIPTIONS). - - - PROCESSES. - - -
8.1.2 LEVEL of Info and Knowledge. - - - LOW. - - - MID. - - - HIGH. - - -
8.1.3 ORGANIZATION of Info and Knowledge. - - - Connections. - - - Passive associations. - - - Causal associations. - - -
8.1.4 ATTRIBUTES of info & K (K-ATTRIBUTES) (Group 1). - - - PURPOSE. - - - IMPORTANCE. - - - APPLICABILITY. - - -
8.1.6 K-ATTRIBUTES (Group 3). - - - AVAILABILITY. - - - BASIS (SOURCE; DERIVATION). - - - PERMANENCE. - - - RELIABILITY (REPEATABILITY based on statistical tests). - - -
8.1.7 K-ATTRIBUTES: VALIDITY (Correctness based on evidence). - - - Validity of info being stored. - - - Validity of info in knowledge base. - - - Parameter: Truth value: probability info is true based on evidence (0 to 1). - - - Validity of info after retrieval. - - -
8.1.8 K-ATTRIBUTES: BELIEF & TRUST (Commitment to dependence on K). - - - Belief in info being stored. - - - COGNITIVE SYSTEM's belief about validity of info in its knowledge base. - - - Parameter: Belief: believe, don't know, disbelieve; believe opposite (1, 0.5, 0; -1). - - - Belief in info after retrieval. - - -
8.1.9 Relationship between info validity and belief. - Utilize or manipulate target's belief about info validity. - Trust in reliable info or source. - - - Distrust of unreliable info or source. - - - Trust in unreliable info or source. - Establish trust in the info, source, or channel so target will utilize it. To make us or other source appear reliable, establish confidence in info; and vice versa. EITHER INFO OR SOURCE (IS): - - - INFO ONLY (IO): - - - Provide initial apparent verification of validity. - - - Make target work for info. - - - Make it appear obtaining info is against our will or hurts us. - - - Appeal to the authority of misunderstood 'modern' advancements (e.g., 'science', 'experiment', 'quantitative measures', photographs , medicine. See 1.3.2. - - - SOURCE ONLY (SO): - - - Maintain a high truth-to-error ratio. Keep the deceptive indicator frequency less than the channel error rate. A reliable source can provide deceptive info only rarely. Leak valid but minor info, or important but known info, thru known agent. (Move to SI). - - - (Logical Fallacy 22.) Employ a perceived 'authority'. - - - e.g., popular, trusted, famous; even if unqualified, inappropriate, or only tenuously associated with topic. - - - e.g., work under the auspices of an authority. - - - Use majority or prevalent opinion to persuade target to jump on the bandwagon (Logical Fallacy 24). - - - Reference a reliable source of closely related information (as the source of the deceptive information). - - - Induce false belief in third party before relay to target (e.g., before capture & interrogation). - - - Make collaborating sources appear independent. - - - Make target believe target controls source. - - - Make establishment of new sources appear accidental or initiated by target. - - - Utilize / intrude on target's own communication channels. - - - Source (or any deceiver) should play the expected role (e.g., act confident). - - - Conceal our interest in source (control or use). - - - Covertly manipulate third parties by baiting. - - - Covertly utilize visible stooges: - - - - establish an agent as one of target's team. e.g., first establish long term relationship ('mole'). - - - - enlist one of target's team as an agent. - - - - obtain assistance from actor in antagonist role. - - - Covertly utilize hidden stooges: - - - - relay info from encounter area when we and target are away. - - - - In a trick called a 'hidden exhibition,' a spy places leads in his residence which, when tracked down by an investigating agent, confirm the spy's false identity. The agent finds such evidence very convincing because of the effort necessary to find it and because looking for it was his own idea. - - - Scientists occasionally succeed in publishing fraudulent experimental results. One reason is that other scientists apparently are unable to believe that another in their profession would do such a thing and, therefore, do not look for fraud. - - - A scientist published fabricated experimental results under the authority of his unsuspecting superior who was highly respected in the field. He used his friends' goodwill to pass the peer review process, and capitalized on the unwillingness of scientists to believe other scientists would do such a thing. - - - Before D-Day, commando groups that were sent out were often given false information about Allied invasion plans so that, if captured, target would pass it on to the Germans. Troops to be sent to North Africa were given mosquito netting and lectures on tropical diseases to convince them, and thus enemy spies, that target were to be sent to the tropics instead. - - - A scientist published fabricated experimental results under the authority of his unsuspecting superior who was highly respected in the field. He used his friends' goodwill to pass the peer review process, and capitalized on the unwillingness of scientists to believe other scientists would do such a thing. - - - In an intelligence operation, an agent was planted in a class being taken by a Russian spy. Long after the class ended, the agent deliberately met the Russian 'by chance.' Subsequently, the agent was recruited into the Russian organization where he was able to obtain info on Russian agents. - - - A business agent drops money on the ground to attract a crowd to where his client is. He then makes sure that those who are considering hiring his client see the crowd and believe that it was attracted meerly by his client's presence. - - - Planting a 'mole' in an adversary's organization is common espionage practice. Moles may work for the adversary for many years before being utilized in a vital espionage role. - - Provide apparently true or expected info, or simulate a trusted source. - - - Provide corroborating info from multiple 'independent' sources (e.g., collusion). - - - Give target a stake in the info or source being (e.g., emotional; cherished beliefs; vested interests; social; claim target has succeeded) - - - Create what target seeks or can be induced to seek as a sign of source validity. - Distrust of reliable info or source. - Discredit info, source, or channel so target will disregard it. To make source appear unreliable, discredit info; and vice versa. - - - EITHER INFO OR SOURCE (IS): - - - Provide recognizably false info - - - Change apparent info quality - - - Make target believe we want target to accept the info. - - - ONLY (IO): - - - Induce or capitalize on dislike or distrust of source to induce distrust of information. ('Damning the origin': since dislike source, info must be wrong; Ad hominum: attack the source rather than the information (Logical Fallacy 26.)). (Opposite of appeal to authority Logical Fallacy 22). - - - - Visitor: Do you pronounce it 'Ha - why - ee' or 'Ha - vhy - ee'? Native: 'Ha - vhy - ee' Visitor: Thank you. Native: You're velcome.
8.1.9.a - - Appeal to decision & judgement processes (1.6.). -
8.1.9.b - - Bias / slant information when transmitting it. Dr. Watson often makes disparaging remarks about Sherlock Holmes' speculations, conning the reader into discounting them.
8.1.9.b.aa - - provide commentary. -
8.1.9.b.bb - - use colorful language (Logical Fallacy 20). -
8.3.1 Failure of Process. - Cause info not to be stored. -
8.3.1.a - - Induce belief that info is not relevant. In many Agatha Christie mysteries some of the most important clues given by the detective are disguised as offhand comments with a second, completely different, meaning. Other characters reinforce the readers erroneous interpretation of these misleading comments by making the same mistake and responding accordingly.
8.3.1.b - - Induce belief that info is not useful. -
8.3.1.b.aa - - Present confusing or contradictory picture. -
8.3.1.c - - Overwhelm LTM capacity with new info & associations. -
8.3.2 Info Validity. - - -
8.3.2.A - - Induce storage of, reinforce, or capitalize on false or misleading info, especially with reference to target's knowledge structure. E.g., Lie (or create falsehood). May use repetition to reinforce the lie. 'Disinformation'. A scientist published fabricated experimental results under the authority of his unsuspecting superior who was highly respected in the field. He used his friends' goodwill to pass the peer review process, and capitalized on the unwillingness of scientists to believe other scientists would do such a thing.
8.3.2.A.1 - - NOTE 1. OBJECTIVES of lying: -
8.3.2.A.1.a - - to commit fraud; to cover / disguise fraud; -
8.3.2.A.1.b - - to misrepresent opposing viewpoints; -
8.3.2.A.1.c - - to make target expect action when none is intended (words are cheaper than action) (procrastination). -
8.3.2.A.1.d - - to misrepresent the value of materials (e.g., for collecting insurance when object is lost or destroyed.) -
8.3.2.A.1.e - - to misrepresent unqualified materials (e.g., medicines). -
8.3.2.A.1.f - - to misrepresent the significance of information. -
8.3.2.A.1.g - - to provide a cover story for our deceptive actions. -
8.3.2.A.2 - - NOTE 2. DEVICES & METHODS of lying: -
8.3.2.A.2.a - - Initiate or capitalize on false or misleading statements or documents (e.g., press releases, hazard notices, reports, mail order ads, bad checks). -
8.3.2.A.2.b - - Rumors. -
8.3.2.A.2.c - - Information leaks, press leaks. To help prevent an info leak, keep all unnecessary parties (including us) uninformed, or informed only of cover story. -
8.3.2.A.2.d - - Forgeries, counterfeits (e.g., fictitious bank transactions). -
8.3.2.A.2.e - - Preplanned stories. -
8.3.2.A.3 - - NOTE 3. It may be very difficult for target to correct such errors in his knowledge structure, as has been demonstrated in experiments on hoaxing, dehoaxing, and desensitizing. Once target is deceived (i.e., hoaxed), attempts to convince target of the existence and nature of the deception involved (i.e., to dehoax), and to reeducate target to remove the effects of the deception (i.e., to desensitize), may not be successful. This is especially true in experiments employing nested deceptions. Once target has been debriefed regarding part of the hoax, he may no longer behave as he would in the 'real world'; and may also realize that he can't distinguish between hoaxing and dehoaxing information. Therefore, his behavior may change; and he may not trust the correct information when the experimenter is desensitizing him about false information learned during the hoax. (See also & C. nested deceptions; subsequently discredited source.) -
8.3.2.B - - Induce target to store hypothetical example as fact. At an official party, the vague statement 'Someone like the Secretary of State said the U.S. might ....' became 'The Secretary of State said ....' (Official policy), after transmission through several parties to a foreign representative.
8.3.2.B.a - - Communicate general idea via specific hypothetical example. -
8.3.2.C - - Create false results of test or experiment. -
8.3.2.C.a - - Design or implement experiment in a biased way. -
8.3.2.C.b - - Control (rig) the data. -
8.3.2.C.c - - Select only desired portions of results (see also 1.3.3.A. Oversimplification; Subjective validation; 2.4.2. Info Selection.) -
8.3.2.C.d - - Use a misleading model. -
8.3.2.C.e - - Use a misleading measure. -
8.3.2.D - - Interpret results to yield false conclusion, especially by 'lying with statistics' (see also 4.4.3. Analytical Procedures). When quoting divorce rate, failing to restrict the set to first-time marriages.
8.3.2.D.a - - Omit an important factor (e.g., a covariable). -
8.3.2.D.b - - Overemphasize an unimportant fact so that it achieves unwarranted significance or weighting (see Advertiser stresses features of product which are in fact no different from those of other products.
8.3.A - - Cause incorrect correlation of real or stored information. -
8.3.A.a - - of multisensor inputs. -
8.3.A.b - - So target believes 2 items exist instead of 1 (correlation failure). Coin bobbing, attaching a thread to a coin to retrieve it, was once used to deceive vending machines.
8.3.A.c - - So target believes 1 item exists instead of 2. Just before the PSA airliner collision in San Diego, the air traffic controllers warned the pilot about a close flying small plane. The pilot said he saw it and was avoiding it. Newspaper reports suggested the plane he saw was a different one, however. The jet collided with the plane the controller had reported to the pilot.
8.3.A.d - - So target's memory rep refers to wrong real-world item. -
8.3.A.e - - Misuse of etymology (assuming falsely that a a concept should be closely related to the origin of words describing it) (Logical Fallacy 50). -
8.3.B - - Cause improper associations and organization during storage. -
8.3.B.a - - Use 'brute force' (brainwashing) to create memories or associations. See 1.1. 'Brainwashing'. -
8.3.B.b - - Use context to cause improper associations and organization during storage. -
8.3.B.b.aa - - Use incorrect context. -
8.3.B.b.bb - - Use unusual context which seems usual. -
8.3.B.b.cc - - Induce target to discard correct context. Two jokes in a series of unrelated elephant jokes. Q: Why do elephants paint their toenails pink? (I don't know.) A: To hide in strawberry patches. Q: Have you ever seen an elephant in a strawberry patch? (No.) A: Effective isn't it? (One automatically discards the context of the first joke before listening to the next.)
8.3.B.b.dd - - Induce target to store unrelated items in close 'proximity' and to forget target are unrelated (e.g., by presenting them in close temporal or spatial proximity and following them with a mass of new information). Von Daniken, in Chariots of the Gods, relates his brief visit to a famous Russian scientist, who is noncommittal on the issues, and then his visit to a Russian writer, who is very opinionated. By the end of the chapter, the reader remembers the opinions as belonging to the scientist rather than to the writer.
8.3.B.c - - Induce target to store a composite event which represents the strengths of two similar events. (E.g., emphasize controls on initial attempt (which, however, fails) and success of second attempt (which, however, has fewer controls) to induce target to remember that attempt succeeded with initial controls.) Psychics sometimes perform a magnificient mind reading effect with much showmanship, only to have it fail. In the heightened suspense which follows, he makes a brief second attempt which succeeds. After the performance, most of the audience remembers only that he succeeded under the stringent conditions of his first attempt.
8.3.a - Time required - -
8.3.b - Reference information - -
8.3.c - Input information - -
8.5 LTM RETENTION AND FORGETTING PROCESSES. (RETENTION (AND FORGETTING) PROCESSES) Allows discarding of detailed input when a match is found. - -
8.5.A - - Use 'brute force' to break down memory or associations. See 1.1.A. Brainwashing. Or use subversion (e.g., 1.1.C. Hypnosis). -
8.5.B - - Take advantage of expected imperfect memory over the long term: -
8.5.B.a - - by referring to a plausible, non-existent entity (e.g., emulate plausible, non-existent info source). A practical joker sent Christmas cards to acquaintances under false names, pretending to have known them in the past and announcing he would visit them soon.
8.5.B.b - - by using a series of deceptions which create an overall impression. The overall effect remembered can be much more magnificent than would be possible if target could remember the the individual events separately. -
8.7.A - - Hinder target's info retrieval: -
8.7.A.a - - Supress or eliminate retrieval cues. -
8.7.A.b - - Induce target to initiate retrieval of nonexistent info (that target believes exists). -
8.7.A.c - - Block recall of correct information by activating an interfering process or item. When trying to recall a familiar tune or name, the thought of a similar one can block recall.
8.7.B - - Induce target to recall a particular schema by raising its activation level by activating related schema. -
8.7.C - - Induce target to retrieve false information. -
8.7.C.a - - previously 'known' info (e.g., common knowledge, stereotypes). -
8.7.C.b - - info which we previously induced target to store. -
8.7.D - - Interpret events for target to help him remember the desired (incorrect) version (e.g., a mock explanation to help target misinterpret an upcoming event; a recapitulation of a past event; leading interrogation of a witness.) -
8.7.a - Time required - -
8.7.b - Reference information - -
8.7.c - Input information - -
8.7.d - Compare input and reference information - -
8.7.d.aa - Finds 'schema' in LTM which represents data (matches, classifies, summarizes) - -
8.8.0.a - Knowledge structure - -
8.8.0.b - Frames, schemata - -
8.8.0.c - Nodes and links (relations; associative) - -
8.8.0.d - Organization - -
8.8.0.e - Activation - -
8.8.0.f - MOPS (Memory Organizational Principles) - -
8.8.0.g - Scripts - -
8.8.0.g.a - Episodic memory (based on events) vs Semantic memory (based on hierachies) - -
8.8.0.h - Learned patterns and procedures - -
8.8.0.i - Routines (programs & subroutines) vs production systems (conditions and actions) - -
8.8.0.j - Automatic processes, rote memory, 'habits' - -
8.8.1 COGNITIVE SYSTEM's GENERAL K & BELIEFS ABOUT THE WORLD. (e.g. superstition, stereotypes) - - -
8.8.1.A - - Induce or capitalize on superstitious beliefs or faulty beliefs about the unknown. -
8.8.1.A.a - - Induce the (false) belief that target is under the control of hypnosis, or the fear that target can be made to act against his will through hypnotic power. -
8.8.1.B - - Utilize or build on target's existing beliefs to direct his acceptance or rejection of ideas (e.g., value judgements). -
8.8.1.C - - Induce / capitalize on troublesome social differences. -
8.8.1.D - - Capitalize on common faulty assumptions and beliefs about everyday life. -
8.8.2 COGNITIVE SYSTEM's IMAGE: PHYSICAL WORLD & PROCESSES. (e.g., natural phenomena, math, physics, frequency data, the existence, nature, & effects of processes) - - -
8.8.3.A - - Establish / capitalize on target's trust in human behavior. Especially, establish trust by familiarity or association; capitalize on trust in a known individual or peer. A scientist published fabricated experimental results under the authority of his unsuspecting superior who was highly respected in the field. He used his friends' goodwill to pass the peer review process, and capitalized on the unwillingness of scientists to believe other scientists would do such a thing.
8.8.3.B - - Establish target's trust in an individual for the purpose of exploiting it. -
8.8.3.B.a - - Establish an agent as one of target's fellow group members or subordinates. -
8.8.3.C - - Capitalize on target's failure to realize that the thought patterns of two or more persons (e.g., himself and someone else) may be surprisingly similar due to common experiences, mutual familiarity, or frequent thinking about each other. -
8.8.5 COGNITIVE SYSTEM'S IMAGE: K & BELIEFS ABOUT ITSELF ('SELF-IMAGE'). - - - Physical characteristics & capabilities. - Capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of his own physical processes, e.g., idiosyncratic movements. In J.R.R. Tolkien's 'The Lord of the Rings,' the advisor Grimer achieves control over the Kingdom of Rohan by convincing the King that he had been affected by age much more than he actually had, and that he must, therefore, severely restrict his activity and let Grimer handle matters for him. Mental characteristics & capabilities. - - - Adequacy of knowledge base (STATES). - - - - - Capitalize on target's false beliefs introduced by a subsequently discredited source (dehoaxing does not imply desensitizing: If a source is discredited, target can't easily invalidate info it had provided). In an experiment, a magician was presented to an audience either as a stage magician or as a genuine psychic. He then performed magic tricks which could be interpreted as proof of genuine psychic powers. It was found, even after a debriefing in which it was emphasized that he did not have such powers, that a majority of each audience remained convinced that he did. - - Capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of his own knowledge base. - Relation of world image to real world. - - - Adequacy of PROCESSES. - Capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of his own mental processes: EXEC, CONTROLLER, SENSOR, etc. - - - Capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of his own mental processes. - - - Capitalize on target's belief in the correctness and justice of his own values, biases, & prejudices (Logical Fallacy 29). - - - in a cause (e.g., in which target is involved); - - - self- righteousness, rationalizing (e.g., something unjust); (e.g., pride and ego prevent the public from accepting that it is so easily deceived). (See also Commitment; Involvement; Emotion of pride). -
8.8.5.A - - Alter target's self-image. -
8.8.5.A.a - - Especially, lower target's self-esteem. (E.g., see 1.1.A. brainwashing.) Religions and imaginary or exaggerated folk heros help shape people's self-image, especially with regard to goals, capabilities, and loyalties.
8.8.5.A.b - - Provide a desired model for target to believe in and as a model after which to pattern his own self image of ideals, goals, loyalties, and capabilities. -
8.8.5.A.c - - Undermine target's belief, confidence, and trust in target's basis for his values and beliefs, especially to create a vacuum to be filled by our ideology. Undermine target's acceptance of, or motivation to remain loyal to his values and beliefs (e.g., by using guilt, depression). -
8.8.5.B - - Capitalize on / affect target's perceptions of target's goals & priorities. -
8.8.6 COGNITIVE SYSTEM's IMAGE: K & BELIEFS ABOUT OTHER SYSTEM. - - - Physical characteristics & capabilities. - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of our physical characteristics and capabilities. - - - Feign our injury, illness, or death. - - - Feign outward appearances: attractive, likeable. - Mental characteristics & capabilities. - - - Adequacy of knowledge base (STATES). - - - - - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of our knowledge base (world image). - - - Feign ignorance of a situation, identity, etc. In the play 'Mayday', we (disguised as chimneysweep) feigns ignorance of target's identity, and insults target to arouse and direct target's anger to our ends. - - Search for info we already has to imply we don't have it. - - - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of our knowledge about target. We send a misleading message in a code that he knows target has cracked. target assumes that we don't know the code has been cracked, and therefore accepts the message as true. - - Feign ignorance of target's identity. - - - - In the play 'Mayday', we (disguised as chimneysweep) feign ignorance of target's identity, and insults target to arouse and direct target's anger to our ends. Relation of world image to real world. - - - OTHER SYSTEM's knowledge about COGNITIVE SYSTEM. - - - Adequacy of PROCESSES. - - - - - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies (or ignorance) in target's concept (perceptions) of our mental processes: EXEC (motives, emotions; goals, intent, priorities; means to goals), CONTROLLER, etc. - - - Show great interest in something (see also - - - Show (pretended) relationships with people (e.g., friendship, helpfulness, cooperation). - - - Methods: by feigning personality, enthusiasm, emotions. - - - Show (pretended) agreement or support (e.g., pay lip service) (Logical Fallacy 33). - - - Withhold information about us. - - - Put on false front (e.g., show excessive leniency to captives). - - - Induce target to believe we have a different goal from the actual one, e.g., by making movements which imply it, but which also support, or at least are not incompatible with, the actual goal. aa. e.g., 'reverse psychology'. Head fakes, or fake hand-offs in football. - - Fabricate a cover story to explain motives for our actions; use natural, expected actions. - - - Induce target to act by showing a faked vunerability; feign retreat while preparing to attack (see also & Current Situation Image). When a predator nears a quail's nest, the mother quail will pull it away from the nest by acting as if she were injured. The predator pursues the 'injured' bird, a seemingly easy prey, and is thus prevented from discovering the nest. - - Nest visible goal(s) within the covert goal, so as to induce target to perceive progress toward the covert goal as merely progress toward the visible goal(s), and thereby prevent target's discovery of the covert goal (see also 8.3.2.A. NOTE 3. Hoaxing). - - - Nest covert goal(s) within a visible goal, so as to induce target to perceive progress toward them as merely progress toward the visible goal, and thereby prevent target's discovery of the covert one(s). In Asimov's 'Foundation's Edge,' two men are looking for the planet Earth. The first is looking for it because of its historic importance. The second, however, wants only to locate a particular organization without arousing its suspicions, and is using the search of the first as a cover while he checks out his primary search area, Earth. - - Establish multiple alternative covert outcomes ('multiple outs'), all of which would appear to achieve a stated goal. Thereby induce target to believe, when any of the outcomes is achieved, that we achieved the stated goal as intended in spite of target's efforts. On a TV show, a magician on the phone had Columbo select a number from 1 to 4. He then directed him to a note hidden under a lamp in which he had correctly predicted the number. Had Columbo selected a different number, the magician would have directed him to a different note. - - Leave target uncertain of our goals / intent: - - - to hinder target's counterdeception effort. - - - so we can claim success later by switching goals, no matter how things turn out ('multiple outs'). - - - We perform random process, observes result, & challenges target to duplicate the event. - - - If an experiment shows 'worse than chance' results, claim target prove the independent variable (which actually has no effect) has an effect in the opposite direction. Some experimenters have erroneously claimed that an experiment showing fewer ESP hits than expected by chance demonstrates involuntary, counterproductive psychic powers.
8.8.6.A - - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of our characteristics and capabilities. Suitors may feign wealth. Uri Geller claims to have genuine psychic powers.
8.8.6.A.a - - Make target believe we possess particular characteristics & capabilities. -
8.8.6.A.a.aa - - Simulate qualifications or power (e.g., capitalize on target's awe of a position or title). -
8.8.6.A.a.bb - - Make target believe we possess special information sources. (Mentalists' methods include cold reading techniques such as inducing target to tell us information without realizing or remembering he has done so, and inducing target to fit generalities to himself (see oddmatches).) -
8.8.6.A.b - - Withhold information about our identity. -
8.8.6.A.c - - Establish in target's mind early a legitimate cover for our activities. Shopper shoplifts and then requests a refund for the product. If he fails to get it, he takes the product and leaves.
8.8.6.A.d - - Make deliberate errors to imply lesser capability. A psychic may make deliberate errors or have deliberate failures to heighten the effect when he succeeds.
8.8.6.A.e - - Possess, unknown to target, particular characteristics & capabilities. -
8.8.6.A.e.aa - - Secretly acquire capability. (e.g., by contriving a special gimmick; or by deriving pertinent info from a complement set.). Especially, capability to discover, steal, organize, or alter information or material. (E.g., hidden miniature transmitters & sensors.) (Mentalists' methods include those for message reading, cold reading, code systems, covert employment of third parties, rapid calculation, sightless vision.) -
8.8.6.A.e.bb - - Induce target to make relevant a capability we secretly possess (e.g., force target to utilize particular information). (Methods include mentalists' techniques for forcing choices.) -
8.8.6.A.e.cc - - Utilize common characteristics or capabilities of which target is unaware (e.g., mnemonic techniques, 'chemical magic' effects). -
8.8.6.B - - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of our method of operation. -
8.8.6.B.a - - 'Bundle of sticks' (ref: Diaconis): Induce target to systematically rule out all methods we might be using by using multiple methods sucessively to repeat the same effect (so weaknesses in one method are covered by the others.) -
8.8.7 COGNITIVE SYSTEM's IMAGE: K & BELIEFS ABOUT THE CURRENT SITUATION: World state, environment, context, significance of past events, processes currently operating. (See 1.8.8. EXEC Working Info). - - -
8.8.7.A - - Make target believe there is much more to know than there is. -
8.8.7.B - - Capitalize on interia in target's beliefs about world when world changes (e.g. change the world). -
8.8.7.C - - Induce or capitalize on differences between target's knowledge and the true state of the world (e.g., by preparing an area in advance for later entry or observation; using (unseen) gimmicks such as microphones, tracers, indicators, lubricants). Bugging a room.
8.8.7.D - - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of the current situation. In a mail fraud scheme, one mails out a large number of predictions of an event with two possible outcomes. Half predict one result, half the other. Following the event, predictions are made for another event, but are sent only to those for whom the first prediction was correct. This pattern is repeated until a relatively small number of very-convinced potential victims remain for the next phase of the scam.
8.8.7.D.a - - Make deliberate errors to imply task is more difficult than it really is. A psychic may make deliberate errors or have deliberate failures to heighten the effect when he succeeds.
8.8.A - - Capitalize on target's lack of knowledge (ignorance). Many individuals have tried to sell 'perpetual motion machines' which run forever without additional energy input. Such salesmen capitalize on, among other things, people's ignorance of the physics which makes such devices impossible.
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