A Framework for Deception
Draft Report

2.0 - CONTROLLER is a single channel processor which: - -
2.0.a - has limited capacity - -
2.0.b - directs info processing resources - -
2.0.c - itself requires info processing resources - -
2.0.d - is affected by motivation and emotion - -
2.0.e - Other Processing Characteristics: - -
2.0.e.a - speed - -
2.0.e.b - timing and coordination - -
2.1.1 ENERGY. - - -
2.1.2 TIME. - - -
2.1.3 SPACE. - - - CHANNELS (interfaces at which CONTROLLER controls info flow). Controls info flow at interfaces; access to Controller Buffer, STM, LTM, and Sensory and Affector Buffers. - - CONTROLLER-Buffer / LTM Interface. - - - Info type: commands & programmed routines for CONTROLLER. - - - EXEC-Working-Memory / LTM Interface. - - - Info type: varied. - - - SENSOR-buffer / Working-Memory Interface. - - - Info type: Sensor input data. - - - AFFECTOR-buffer / LTM Interface. - - - Info type: Commands & routines for affector output. Output coding for affectors - - - Message generation and encription to indicators. - - - Motor patterns; speech articulation patterns. - - - Inclusion of unintended information (info leaks). - - - Errors and delays. - -
2.2.1 EMOTIONS. - - -
2.2.2 PROCESSES. Routine requirements to inspect STM and SENSOR BUFFER for new info, and to process this info (before it is lost). See list of processes in EXEC 1.6 'Fundamental Processes'. - - -
2.3 Control info processing strategy; & distribute processing resources required for info flow and processing. - - -
2.3.1 Select processing strategy. Selects Processing Strategy. - - UTILIZE EXEC / K-USING MANAGER processes which consider: - - - goals. - - - priorities. - - - motivation. - - - alternative available processing strategies. - - - - - Teach (brainwash) a new (automatic) process and then capitalize on the new behavior. - - - Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning to produce conditioned reflex (e.g., by using fear, shock, etc). - - - Operant conditioning (shaping a behavior by rewarding the closest occuring behavior whenever it occurs). - - - Capitalize on non-lateral thinking; get target committed to a reasonable but wrong interpretation, thus preventing recognition of correct interpretation. Building security guards detect an alarm or noise. On arrival at the point of the disturbance target discover a cat which obviously caused the problem. This assumption keeps the guards from looking for and finding the real intruder. availability of processing resources (see 2.1.). - - - - - Allow insufficient processing time. - - - Induce target to allot insufficient processing time. - - - Distort target's time sense. (e.g., induce emotions; confuse, panic, make busy, make enjoyable). - Affected by: - - - Dependence on preprogrammed, automatic, habitual, subconscious, (inflexible) processes. - Induce / capitalize on the inflexible use of habitual or automatic processes by: - - - Having target invoke the incorrect one of two processes with identical beginnings. When driving to location A, which entails driving a portion of the driver's usual route home, the driver inadvertently takes the turn to his home. - - Having target invoke a usually appropriate process, for a particular, inappropriate situation. Following notice of change in meeting location, driver inadvertently starts driving to its usual location. - - Having target invoke, and then fail to stop a longer process, only the first part of which is required. A person returns from his morning shower to his previously arranged breakfast, only to find that the bread he had put in the toaster for later toasting is already cooked and cold. Dependence on external guidance & influence (see also & - - - Willingness to expend resources to obtain info. - - - Distribution of proc resources required by task. - - - Discomfort (physical; mental). - - -
2.3.1.A - - Manipulate target's information processing strategy or (automatic) problem solving procedure. 'The horse raced past the barn fell.' While reading that sentence, most people use a processing strategy which commits them to interpreting 'raced' as the main verb. Hence, when target see the word 'fell,' target are surprised and cannot easily reinterpret the meaning as, 'The horse (the one which was raced past the barn) fell.'
2.3.1.B - - Induce target to apply wrong processing strategy; e.g., induce target to commit himself to a particular strategy, and thereby lose flexibility, before he has sufficient information to select the correct strategy. Riddles: How many two cent stamps in a dozen? How much is 6 divided by 1 / 2?
2.3.1.B.a - - Provide obvious but incorrect processing goal. Riddle: Pronounce 'folk'. Pronounce the word for the white of an egg. Pronounce the word for the yellow of an egg.
2.3.1.B.b - - Provide, or provide data which induces, obvious but incorrect proc rule or strategy. -
2.3.1.B.b.aa - - Provide large amount of info to support wrong strategy, to direct attention away from right one. Riddle: 'As I was going to St. Ives I met a man with 7 wives; each wife had 7 sacks; each sac had 7 cats; each cat had 7 kitts; kitts, cats, sacks, wives; how many were going to St Ives?' Ans: 1.
2.3.1.B.c - - Induce processing strategy which discards or fails to recognize and utilize relevant info. Math riddle: Provide data of boarding and off-loading of passengers for a bus, stop by stop. After a number of stops ask, not how many people are on the bus, but how many stops the bus made.
2.3.1.B.d - - Lead target away from correct proc rule or strategy. -
2.3.1.a - Encoding processes - -
2.3.1.a.aa - Level of detail (F / NF) - -
2.3.1.a.bb - Code forming / code using - Probable bias for code using strategies vs lengthy code forming (learning) strategies - -
2.3.1.b - Automatic processes vs controlled processes - -
2.3.1.b.aa - Novel vs familiar data - -
2.3.1.b.bb - Flexible vs inflexible - -
2.3.1.c - Selection of reference information - -
2.3.1.d - External influence - -
2.3.2 Assign processing resources to customers. - - -
2.3.3 Implement info processing strategy. Implementation of processing strategy - -
2.3.3.a - Encoding processes (decoding from indicators to message; analyze, interpret, validate, evaluate, screen evaluation) - -
2.3.3.a.aa - Chunking - -
2.4.2 Directs processing resources in controlling info selection (INFO SELECTION & SELECTIVE ATTENTION). Controls ATTENTION PROCESSES Control or limit target's information input. - Percent engaged - Manipulate or capitalize on percent attention is engaged. - Disengaged (relaxed; attention not attracted) - RELAX Attention. - - - Create belief that analysis is unnecessary. - - - Seem above suspicion. - - - Seem not worth attention or evaluation ('be natural'). - - - - The little shepherd boy cried 'wolf' so often that when the wolf really did show up no one believed him. - - Seem innocuous, esp. completely outside or contradicting target's expectations. To use a low-technology weapon delivery system such as a balloon, light aircraft, or sailboat which are unexpected and seem innocuous. - - Create belief nothing much or unusual is happening (de-emphasis). - - - Fit target's image of situation & context (keep emphasis and overall balance within expected range). - - - Simulate background. To signal one another covertly, indians some-times used bird calls. Such signals could avoid notice because target seemed to be, or blended in with, usual background noises. - - Simulate an irrelevant event. - - - Change target's image of situation and context so that desired deceptive event, alerting event, or alerting cessation of an event will fit (preconditioning; establish potential alerting condition as common place) (e.g., anesthetize defenses; hold regular military maneuvers or demonstrations). Preceeding Normandy landings the Allies had many intermitent periods of radio silence so the radio silence preceeding the actual invasion would not alert the Germans. - - Modify, in advance, background, irrelevant or relevant event, or many events to look like deceptive event. - - - Increase false alarm rate to excess so alarms ignored. - - - Utilize a rhythmical timing pause; ie, capitalize on target's natural tendency to assume there is little happening on the off-beat. - - - Create boredom (anticipation of nothing happening). - - - By repetition and monotony. -. Often, three times is about right, and five times seems endless. -. Metrically; pace & rhythm are important. - - - Implication (imply a method; imply subsequent proceedings). - - - Create belief that analysis is complete. - - - Event is completed ('natural conclusion'). also The use of a simulated assassination attempt as a decoy to misdirect attention from the real assassination attempt. - - target believes he can adequately predict future events. Some members of a particular religious group believe that, in relatively few years, the earth's magnetic field will be too weak for man to survive. This belief, however, is based on overextrapolation of the current temporal pattern, ignoring the fact that the earth's magnetic field strength is cyclical. - - create a pattern, e.g., by repetition. - - - imply a well-known procedure. - - - target is no longer attending because he has already examined the object (e.g. before covert substitution). - Partially engaged - Control processing effort needed for detailed examination (See also Divide Attention). - - - Increase required processing. - - - have key item be one of many. In 'Raiders of the Lost Ark,' Marion was hidden in a basket identical to many others in the marketplace; and the ark was stored in a warehouse in a crate along with thousands of similar crates. Prior to D-Day the Allies sent many fake messages along with the real ones. - - misfile item. - - - Decrease required processing. - - - Induce target to make a quick exam & move on. - - - Capitalize on target's low level of motivation (q.v.). - - - Manipulate target's pattern recognition criterion. - Fully engaged - - - Overloaded - Overload target's processing resources. - - - - In WWII, to prevent the Germans from discovering the true D-Day landing site, the Allies 'leaked' false plans for landings at points covering most of the continent. - - - A claims approver was successful in getting required insurance company signatures on fictitious claims because he pushed them through the system during a period of high volume and high personnel turnover when individual cases were not carefully reviewed. - - Emphasize key points we want target to remember (e.g., by using timing, routining). - - - Feed target info we want target to appreciate. - Where directed - Manipulate (control) target's attention, & capitalize on where it is directed (e.g., misdirection). - Shift center of attention; Attract; DIVERT - - - - - Shift or attract target's attn to something we want target to find and appreciate. - - - DIVERT all of target's attention to something to prevent target from attending to the correct means to a goal, to thinking laterally, or to a deceptive event. Use successive diversions, each of which covers the deceptive preparation for the one which follows it. - - - provide alternative goals or means (see EXEC) - - - Propose impossible task or illusionary solution (e.g., to use up target's time or processing resources until it's too late); (refuse to accept less than perfection) (Logical Fallacy 44). - - - Simulate a relevant event, especially a high- interest event or activity, or the presence of an important item or person. Or exaggerate the importance of an irrelevant event (Logical Fallacy 40 -- red herring). - - - Induce or capitalize on target's belief that his enemy is a third party rather than us, especially when we pretend to be target's friend ( - - - Attract target's attn to desired info by providing incidental clues for target to follow. - - - Use an irrelevant argument or proof (Logical Fallacy 55 --irrelevant thesis) to exaggerate and call attention to an irrelevant point and away from the relevant one. Scott advertised that its paper towels were heavier than its competitor's towels, implying that target, therefore, performed better. - - Types of diversion: - - - External to the event (digression). - - - Integral to the event: - - - Switch (sidetrack). -. Should wait for the right cover. - - - Mask (screen secret events from target's view). - - - Disguise (dual purpose). -. Having target properly motivated to expect the disguise is key. - - - Pointing (pause- action- pause; make secret move during the action). -. Timing and smooth performance are key; pauses are on the downbeat, the action on the upbeat. - - - Climax (use the climax of one event to hold target's attention away from the deceptive preparation for the next event). - HOLD (maintain) - HOLD target's attention. - - - Substitute fake and covertly remove original or vice versa. - - - without lapse of target's attention. - - - utilize continuity during brief interruption of observation (see EXEC, also). A common action in movies is for a pursued car to drive into an alley, only to reappear immediately and escape in a different direction. The pursuers, close behind, are now being led astray by a different car, the original having remained in the alley. Field of view (focus) - - - Widen; DIVIDE attn (DISTRACT) - - - Among relevant events ('integral DISTRACTION') - DIVIDE (DISTRACT) target's attention among relevant events (e.g., feints, negotiations, etc.) ('integral distraction'). - - - contradiction. Prior to D-Day (Operation Overlord) the Allies presented the Germans with information indicating many different locations for the forthcoming attack to divide their resources. - - confusion (def: uncertainty as to what data is relevant, or how to analyze data); create a mild commotion. Psychic Uri Geller sometimes creates confusion verbally and with actions (The Amazing Randi has dubbed this the 'Geller Tornado') in order to prevent a social group audience from closely watching his sleight-of-hand. - - flustering (def: utilization of processing resources by emotion). - - - by flattery. - - - by accusation. - - - perplexity (def: uncertainty as to meaning of puzzling analysis results, or how to continue complicated data analysis; due to something which is complicated, involved, or puzzling). - Among irrelevant events ('external DISTRACTION') - DIVIDE target's attention among irrelevant events ('external distraction'). (E.g., provide a brief, but well- timed incident which temporarily demands target's attention). A pickpocket can use a well-timed comment or collision to hide his deed. - - Startling (e.g., explosion). A guard standing watch is lured to help those in an 'accident'. While he does so someone sneaks past his post. - - Incidental (e.g., girl on stage) (a natural or expected event). - Narrow - Direct target's attention to specific aspect (e.g., a hazard), so others ignored or target loses overall perspective. - - - so target misses big picture (forest for trees). - - - so target loses temporal perspective. - - - Factors: appearance, size, shape, intensity, color, frequency, & other attributes of stimulus; spacial and temporal magnitude of movement; contrast; novelty; dominant member of set (e.g., Ace of Spades stands out in a group of cards); compromise (e.g., a person selects the only member of a group which does not stand out). target's desires and needs; interesting activity. -
2.4.2.a - Determines allocation of limited processing resources to Controller, EXEC, STM, LTM, sensory, and affector processes. Supply information which supports one's hypothesis, especially in large quantities, and omit the rest. (See -
2.4.2.b - Percent engaged - -
2.4.2.c - Where directed - -