A Framework for Deception
Draft Report

8.1.1 TYPES of Info and Knowledge. - - - STATES (STATE DESCRIPTIONS). - - - PROCESSES. - - -
8.1.2 LEVEL of Info and Knowledge. - - - LOW. - - - MID. - - - HIGH. - - -
8.1.3 ORGANIZATION of Info and Knowledge. - - - Connections. - - - Passive associations. - - - Causal associations. - - -
8.1.4 ATTRIBUTES of info & K (K-ATTRIBUTES) (Group 1). - - - PURPOSE. - - - IMPORTANCE. - - - APPLICABILITY. - - -
8.1.6 K-ATTRIBUTES (Group 3). - - - AVAILABILITY. - - - BASIS (SOURCE; DERIVATION). - - - PERMANENCE. - - - RELIABILITY (REPEATABILITY based on statistical tests). - - -
8.1.7 K-ATTRIBUTES: VALIDITY (Correctness based on evidence). - - - Validity of info being stored. - - - Validity of info in knowledge base. - - - Parameter: Truth value: probability info is true based on evidence (0 to 1). - - - Validity of info after retrieval. - - -
8.1.8 K-ATTRIBUTES: BELIEF & TRUST (Commitment to dependence on K). - - - Belief in info being stored. - - - COGNITIVE SYSTEM's belief about validity of info in its knowledge base. - - - Parameter: Belief: believe, don't know, disbelieve; believe opposite (1, 0.5, 0; -1). - - - Belief in info after retrieval. - - -
8.1.9 Relationship between info validity and belief. - Utilize or manipulate target's belief about info validity. - Trust in reliable info or source. - - - Distrust of unreliable info or source. - - - Trust in unreliable info or source. - Establish trust in the info, source, or channel so target will utilize it. To make us or other source appear reliable, establish confidence in info; and vice versa. EITHER INFO OR SOURCE (IS): - - - INFO ONLY (IO): - - - Provide initial apparent verification of validity. - - - Make target work for info. - - - Make it appear obtaining info is against our will or hurts us. - - - Appeal to the authority of misunderstood 'modern' advancements (e.g., 'science', 'experiment', 'quantitative measures', photographs , medicine. See 1.3.2. - - - SOURCE ONLY (SO): - - - Maintain a high truth-to-error ratio. Keep the deceptive indicator frequency less than the channel error rate. A reliable source can provide deceptive info only rarely. Leak valid but minor info, or important but known info, thru known agent. (Move to SI). - - - (Logical Fallacy 22.) Employ a perceived 'authority'. - - - e.g., popular, trusted, famous; even if unqualified, inappropriate, or only tenuously associated with topic. - - - e.g., work under the auspices of an authority. - - - Use majority or prevalent opinion to persuade target to jump on the bandwagon (Logical Fallacy 24). - - - Reference a reliable source of closely related information (as the source of the deceptive information). - - - Induce false belief in third party before relay to target (e.g., before capture & interrogation). - - - Make collaborating sources appear independent. - - - Make target believe target controls source. - - - Make establishment of new sources appear accidental or initiated by target. - - - Utilize / intrude on target's own communication channels. - - - Source (or any deceiver) should play the expected role (e.g., act confident). - - - Conceal our interest in source (control or use). - - - Covertly manipulate third parties by baiting. - - - Covertly utilize visible stooges: - - - - establish an agent as one of target's team. e.g., first establish long term relationship ('mole'). - - - - enlist one of target's team as an agent. - - - - obtain assistance from actor in antagonist role. - - - Covertly utilize hidden stooges: - - - - relay info from encounter area when we and target are away. - - - - In a trick called a 'hidden exhibition,' a spy places leads in his residence which, when tracked down by an investigating agent, confirm the spy's false identity. The agent finds such evidence very convincing because of the effort necessary to find it and because looking for it was his own idea. - - - Scientists occasionally succeed in publishing fraudulent experimental results. One reason is that other scientists apparently are unable to believe that another in their profession would do such a thing and, therefore, do not look for fraud. - - - A scientist published fabricated experimental results under the authority of his unsuspecting superior who was highly respected in the field. He used his friends' goodwill to pass the peer review process, and capitalized on the unwillingness of scientists to believe other scientists would do such a thing. - - - Before D-Day, commando groups that were sent out were often given false information about Allied invasion plans so that, if captured, target would pass it on to the Germans. Troops to be sent to North Africa were given mosquito netting and lectures on tropical diseases to convince them, and thus enemy spies, that target were to be sent to the tropics instead. - - - A scientist published fabricated experimental results under the authority of his unsuspecting superior who was highly respected in the field. He used his friends' goodwill to pass the peer review process, and capitalized on the unwillingness of scientists to believe other scientists would do such a thing. - - - In an intelligence operation, an agent was planted in a class being taken by a Russian spy. Long after the class ended, the agent deliberately met the Russian 'by chance.' Subsequently, the agent was recruited into the Russian organization where he was able to obtain info on Russian agents. - - - A business agent drops money on the ground to attract a crowd to where his client is. He then makes sure that those who are considering hiring his client see the crowd and believe that it was attracted meerly by his client's presence. - - - Planting a 'mole' in an adversary's organization is common espionage practice. Moles may work for the adversary for many years before being utilized in a vital espionage role. - - Provide apparently true or expected info, or simulate a trusted source. - - - Provide corroborating info from multiple 'independent' sources (e.g., collusion). - - - Give target a stake in the info or source being (e.g., emotional; cherished beliefs; vested interests; social; claim target has succeeded) - - - Create what target seeks or can be induced to seek as a sign of source validity. - Distrust of reliable info or source. - Discredit info, source, or channel so target will disregard it. To make source appear unreliable, discredit info; and vice versa. - - - EITHER INFO OR SOURCE (IS): - - - Provide recognizably false info - - - Change apparent info quality - - - Make target believe we want target to accept the info. - - - ONLY (IO): - - - Induce or capitalize on dislike or distrust of source to induce distrust of information. ('Damning the origin': since dislike source, info must be wrong; Ad hominum: attack the source rather than the information (Logical Fallacy 26.)). (Opposite of appeal to authority Logical Fallacy 22). - - - - Visitor: Do you pronounce it 'Ha - why - ee' or 'Ha - vhy - ee'? Native: 'Ha - vhy - ee' Visitor: Thank you. Native: You're velcome.
8.1.9.a - - Appeal to decision & judgement processes (1.6.). -
8.1.9.b - - Bias / slant information when transmitting it. Dr. Watson often makes disparaging remarks about Sherlock Holmes' speculations, conning the reader into discounting them.
8.1.9.b.aa - - provide commentary. -
8.1.9.b.bb - - use colorful language (Logical Fallacy 20). -
8.3.1 Failure of Process. - Cause info not to be stored. -
8.3.1.a - - Induce belief that info is not relevant. In many Agatha Christie mysteries some of the most important clues given by the detective are disguised as offhand comments with a second, completely different, meaning. Other characters reinforce the readers erroneous interpretation of these misleading comments by making the same mistake and responding accordingly.
8.3.1.b - - Induce belief that info is not useful. -
8.3.1.b.aa - - Present confusing or contradictory picture. -
8.3.1.c - - Overwhelm LTM capacity with new info & associations. -
8.3.2 Info Validity. - - -
8.3.2.A - - Induce storage of, reinforce, or capitalize on false or misleading info, especially with reference to target's knowledge structure. E.g., Lie (or create falsehood). May use repetition to reinforce the lie. 'Disinformation'. A scientist published fabricated experimental results under the authority of his unsuspecting superior who was highly respected in the field. He used his friends' goodwill to pass the peer review process, and capitalized on the unwillingness of scientists to believe other scientists would do such a thing.
8.3.2.A.1 - - NOTE 1. OBJECTIVES of lying: -
8.3.2.A.1.a - - to commit fraud; to cover / disguise fraud; -
8.3.2.A.1.b - - to misrepresent opposing viewpoints; -
8.3.2.A.1.c - - to make target expect action when none is intended (words are cheaper than action) (procrastination). -
8.3.2.A.1.d - - to misrepresent the value of materials (e.g., for collecting insurance when object is lost or destroyed.) -
8.3.2.A.1.e - - to misrepresent unqualified materials (e.g., medicines). -
8.3.2.A.1.f - - to misrepresent the significance of information. -
8.3.2.A.1.g - - to provide a cover story for our deceptive actions. -
8.3.2.A.2 - - NOTE 2. DEVICES & METHODS of lying: -
8.3.2.A.2.a - - Initiate or capitalize on false or misleading statements or documents (e.g., press releases, hazard notices, reports, mail order ads, bad checks). -
8.3.2.A.2.b - - Rumors. -
8.3.2.A.2.c - - Information leaks, press leaks. To help prevent an info leak, keep all unnecessary parties (including us) uninformed, or informed only of cover story. -
8.3.2.A.2.d - - Forgeries, counterfeits (e.g., fictitious bank transactions). -
8.3.2.A.2.e - - Preplanned stories. -
8.3.2.A.3 - - NOTE 3. It may be very difficult for target to correct such errors in his knowledge structure, as has been demonstrated in experiments on hoaxing, dehoaxing, and desensitizing. Once target is deceived (i.e., hoaxed), attempts to convince target of the existence and nature of the deception involved (i.e., to dehoax), and to reeducate target to remove the effects of the deception (i.e., to desensitize), may not be successful. This is especially true in experiments employing nested deceptions. Once target has been debriefed regarding part of the hoax, he may no longer behave as he would in the 'real world'; and may also realize that he can't distinguish between hoaxing and dehoaxing information. Therefore, his behavior may change; and he may not trust the correct information when the experimenter is desensitizing him about false information learned during the hoax. (See also & C. nested deceptions; subsequently discredited source.) -
8.3.2.B - - Induce target to store hypothetical example as fact. At an official party, the vague statement 'Someone like the Secretary of State said the U.S. might ....' became 'The Secretary of State said ....' (Official policy), after transmission through several parties to a foreign representative.
8.3.2.B.a - - Communicate general idea via specific hypothetical example. -
8.3.2.C - - Create false results of test or experiment. -
8.3.2.C.a - - Design or implement experiment in a biased way. -
8.3.2.C.b - - Control (rig) the data. -
8.3.2.C.c - - Select only desired portions of results (see also 1.3.3.A. Oversimplification; Subjective validation; 2.4.2. Info Selection.) -
8.3.2.C.d - - Use a misleading model. -
8.3.2.C.e - - Use a misleading measure. -
8.3.2.D - - Interpret results to yield false conclusion, especially by 'lying with statistics' (see also 4.4.3. Analytical Procedures). When quoting divorce rate, failing to restrict the set to first-time marriages.
8.3.2.D.a - - Omit an important factor (e.g., a covariable). -
8.3.2.D.b - - Overemphasize an unimportant fact so that it achieves unwarranted significance or weighting (see Advertiser stresses features of product which are in fact no different from those of other products.
8.3.A - - Cause incorrect correlation of real or stored information. -
8.3.A.a - - of multisensor inputs. -
8.3.A.b - - So target believes 2 items exist instead of 1 (correlation failure). Coin bobbing, attaching a thread to a coin to retrieve it, was once used to deceive vending machines.
8.3.A.c - - So target believes 1 item exists instead of 2. Just before the PSA airliner collision in San Diego, the air traffic controllers warned the pilot about a close flying small plane. The pilot said he saw it and was avoiding it. Newspaper reports suggested the plane he saw was a different one, however. The jet collided with the plane the controller had reported to the pilot.
8.3.A.d - - So target's memory rep refers to wrong real-world item. -
8.3.A.e - - Misuse of etymology (assuming falsely that a a concept should be closely related to the origin of words describing it) (Logical Fallacy 50). -
8.3.B - - Cause improper associations and organization during storage. -
8.3.B.a - - Use 'brute force' (brainwashing) to create memories or associations. See 1.1. 'Brainwashing'. -
8.3.B.b - - Use context to cause improper associations and organization during storage. -
8.3.B.b.aa - - Use incorrect context. -
8.3.B.b.bb - - Use unusual context which seems usual. -
8.3.B.b.cc - - Induce target to discard correct context. Two jokes in a series of unrelated elephant jokes. Q: Why do elephants paint their toenails pink? (I don't know.) A: To hide in strawberry patches. Q: Have you ever seen an elephant in a strawberry patch? (No.) A: Effective isn't it? (One automatically discards the context of the first joke before listening to the next.)
8.3.B.b.dd - - Induce target to store unrelated items in close 'proximity' and to forget target are unrelated (e.g., by presenting them in close temporal or spatial proximity and following them with a mass of new information). Von Daniken, in Chariots of the Gods, relates his brief visit to a famous Russian scientist, who is noncommittal on the issues, and then his visit to a Russian writer, who is very opinionated. By the end of the chapter, the reader remembers the opinions as belonging to the scientist rather than to the writer.
8.3.B.c - - Induce target to store a composite event which represents the strengths of two similar events. (E.g., emphasize controls on initial attempt (which, however, fails) and success of second attempt (which, however, has fewer controls) to induce target to remember that attempt succeeded with initial controls.) Psychics sometimes perform a magnificient mind reading effect with much showmanship, only to have it fail. In the heightened suspense which follows, he makes a brief second attempt which succeeds. After the performance, most of the audience remembers only that he succeeded under the stringent conditions of his first attempt.
8.3.a - Time required - -
8.3.b - Reference information - -
8.3.c - Input information - -
8.5 LTM RETENTION AND FORGETTING PROCESSES. (RETENTION (AND FORGETTING) PROCESSES) Allows discarding of detailed input when a match is found. - -
8.5.A - - Use 'brute force' to break down memory or associations. See 1.1.A. Brainwashing. Or use subversion (e.g., 1.1.C. Hypnosis). -
8.5.B - - Take advantage of expected imperfect memory over the long term: -
8.5.B.a - - by referring to a plausible, non-existent entity (e.g., emulate plausible, non-existent info source). A practical joker sent Christmas cards to acquaintances under false names, pretending to have known them in the past and announcing he would visit them soon.
8.5.B.b - - by using a series of deceptions which create an overall impression. The overall effect remembered can be much more magnificent than would be possible if target could remember the the individual events separately. -
8.7.A - - Hinder target's info retrieval: -
8.7.A.a - - Supress or eliminate retrieval cues. -
8.7.A.b - - Induce target to initiate retrieval of nonexistent info (that target believes exists). -
8.7.A.c - - Block recall of correct information by activating an interfering process or item. When trying to recall a familiar tune or name, the thought of a similar one can block recall.
8.7.B - - Induce target to recall a particular schema by raising its activation level by activating related schema. -
8.7.C - - Induce target to retrieve false information. -
8.7.C.a - - previously 'known' info (e.g., common knowledge, stereotypes). -
8.7.C.b - - info which we previously induced target to store. -
8.7.D - - Interpret events for target to help him remember the desired (incorrect) version (e.g., a mock explanation to help target misinterpret an upcoming event; a recapitulation of a past event; leading interrogation of a witness.) -
8.7.a - Time required - -
8.7.b - Reference information - -
8.7.c - Input information - -
8.7.d - Compare input and reference information - -
8.7.d.aa - Finds 'schema' in LTM which represents data (matches, classifies, summarizes) - -
8.8.0.a - Knowledge structure - -
8.8.0.b - Frames, schemata - -
8.8.0.c - Nodes and links (relations; associative) - -
8.8.0.d - Organization - -
8.8.0.e - Activation - -
8.8.0.f - MOPS (Memory Organizational Principles) - -
8.8.0.g - Scripts - -
8.8.0.g.a - Episodic memory (based on events) vs Semantic memory (based on hierachies) - -
8.8.0.h - Learned patterns and procedures - -
8.8.0.i - Routines (programs & subroutines) vs production systems (conditions and actions) - -
8.8.0.j - Automatic processes, rote memory, 'habits' - -
8.8.1 COGNITIVE SYSTEM's GENERAL K & BELIEFS ABOUT THE WORLD. (e.g. superstition, stereotypes) - - -
8.8.1.A - - Induce or capitalize on superstitious beliefs or faulty beliefs about the unknown. -
8.8.1.A.a - - Induce the (false) belief that target is under the control of hypnosis, or the fear that target can be made to act against his will through hypnotic power. -
8.8.1.B - - Utilize or build on target's existing beliefs to direct his acceptance or rejection of ideas (e.g., value judgements). -
8.8.1.C - - Induce / capitalize on troublesome social differences. -
8.8.1.D - - Capitalize on common faulty assumptions and beliefs about everyday life. -
8.8.2 COGNITIVE SYSTEM's IMAGE: PHYSICAL WORLD & PROCESSES. (e.g., natural phenomena, math, physics, frequency data, the existence, nature, & effects of processes) - - -
8.8.3.A - - Establish / capitalize on target's trust in human behavior. Especially, establish trust by familiarity or association; capitalize on trust in a known individual or peer. A scientist published fabricated experimental results under the authority of his unsuspecting superior who was highly respected in the field. He used his friends' goodwill to pass the peer review process, and capitalized on the unwillingness of scientists to believe other scientists would do such a thing.
8.8.3.B - - Establish target's trust in an individual for the purpose of exploiting it. -
8.8.3.B.a - - Establish an agent as one of target's fellow group members or subordinates. -
8.8.3.C - - Capitalize on target's failure to realize that the thought patterns of two or more persons (e.g., himself and someone else) may be surprisingly similar due to common experiences, mutual familiarity, or frequent thinking about each other. -
8.8.5 COGNITIVE SYSTEM'S IMAGE: K & BELIEFS ABOUT ITSELF ('SELF-IMAGE'). - - - Physical characteristics & capabilities. - Capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of his own physical processes, e.g., idiosyncratic movements. In J.R.R. Tolkien's 'The Lord of the Rings,' the advisor Grimer achieves control over the Kingdom of Rohan by convincing the King that he had been affected by age much more than he actually had, and that he must, therefore, severely restrict his activity and let Grimer handle matters for him. Mental characteristics & capabilities. - - - Adequacy of knowledge base (STATES). - - - - - Capitalize on target's false beliefs introduced by a subsequently discredited source (dehoaxing does not imply desensitizing: If a source is discredited, target can't easily invalidate info it had provided). In an experiment, a magician was presented to an audience either as a stage magician or as a genuine psychic. He then performed magic tricks which could be interpreted as proof of genuine psychic powers. It was found, even after a debriefing in which it was emphasized that he did not have such powers, that a majority of each audience remained convinced that he did. - - Capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of his own knowledge base. - Relation of world image to real world. - - - Adequacy of PROCESSES. - Capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of his own mental processes: EXEC, CONTROLLER, SENSOR, etc. - - - Capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of his own mental processes. - - - Capitalize on target's belief in the correctness and justice of his own values, biases, & prejudices (Logical Fallacy 29). - - - in a cause (e.g., in which target is involved); - - - self- righteousness, rationalizing (e.g., something unjust); (e.g., pride and ego prevent the public from accepting that it is so easily deceived). (See also Commitment; Involvement; Emotion of pride). -
8.8.5.A - - Alter target's self-image. -
8.8.5.A.a - - Especially, lower target's self-esteem. (E.g., see 1.1.A. brainwashing.) Religions and imaginary or exaggerated folk heros help shape people's self-image, especially with regard to goals, capabilities, and loyalties.
8.8.5.A.b - - Provide a desired model for target to believe in and as a model after which to pattern his own self image of ideals, goals, loyalties, and capabilities. -
8.8.5.A.c - - Undermine target's belief, confidence, and trust in target's basis for his values and beliefs, especially to create a vacuum to be filled by our ideology. Undermine target's acceptance of, or motivation to remain loyal to his values and beliefs (e.g., by using guilt, depression). -
8.8.5.B - - Capitalize on / affect target's perceptions of target's goals & priorities. -
8.8.6 COGNITIVE SYSTEM's IMAGE: K & BELIEFS ABOUT OTHER SYSTEM. - - - Physical characteristics & capabilities. - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of our physical characteristics and capabilities. - - - Feign our injury, illness, or death. - - - Feign outward appearances: attractive, likeable. - Mental characteristics & capabilities. - - - Adequacy of knowledge base (STATES). - - - - - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of our knowledge base (world image). - - - Feign ignorance of a situation, identity, etc. In the play 'Mayday', we (disguised as chimneysweep) feigns ignorance of target's identity, and insults target to arouse and direct target's anger to our ends. - - Search for info we already has to imply we don't have it. - - - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of our knowledge about target. We send a misleading message in a code that he knows target has cracked. target assumes that we don't know the code has been cracked, and therefore accepts the message as true. - - Feign ignorance of target's identity. - - - - In the play 'Mayday', we (disguised as chimneysweep) feign ignorance of target's identity, and insults target to arouse and direct target's anger to our ends. Relation of world image to real world. - - - OTHER SYSTEM's knowledge about COGNITIVE SYSTEM. - - - Adequacy of PROCESSES. - - - - - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies (or ignorance) in target's concept (perceptions) of our mental processes: EXEC (motives, emotions; goals, intent, priorities; means to goals), CONTROLLER, etc. - - - Show great interest in something (see also - - - Show (pretended) relationships with people (e.g., friendship, helpfulness, cooperation). - - - Methods: by feigning personality, enthusiasm, emotions. - - - Show (pretended) agreement or support (e.g., pay lip service) (Logical Fallacy 33). - - - Withhold information about us. - - - Put on false front (e.g., show excessive leniency to captives). - - - Induce target to believe we have a different goal from the actual one, e.g., by making movements which imply it, but which also support, or at least are not incompatible with, the actual goal. aa. e.g., 'reverse psychology'. Head fakes, or fake hand-offs in football. - - Fabricate a cover story to explain motives for our actions; use natural, expected actions. - - - Induce target to act by showing a faked vunerability; feign retreat while preparing to attack (see also & Current Situation Image). When a predator nears a quail's nest, the mother quail will pull it away from the nest by acting as if she were injured. The predator pursues the 'injured' bird, a seemingly easy prey, and is thus prevented from discovering the nest. - - Nest visible goal(s) within the covert goal, so as to induce target to perceive progress toward the covert goal as merely progress toward the visible goal(s), and thereby prevent target's discovery of the covert goal (see also 8.3.2.A. NOTE 3. Hoaxing). - - - Nest covert goal(s) within a visible goal, so as to induce target to perceive progress toward them as merely progress toward the visible goal, and thereby prevent target's discovery of the covert one(s). In Asimov's 'Foundation's Edge,' two men are looking for the planet Earth. The first is looking for it because of its historic importance. The second, however, wants only to locate a particular organization without arousing its suspicions, and is using the search of the first as a cover while he checks out his primary search area, Earth. - - Establish multiple alternative covert outcomes ('multiple outs'), all of which would appear to achieve a stated goal. Thereby induce target to believe, when any of the outcomes is achieved, that we achieved the stated goal as intended in spite of target's efforts. On a TV show, a magician on the phone had Columbo select a number from 1 to 4. He then directed him to a note hidden under a lamp in which he had correctly predicted the number. Had Columbo selected a different number, the magician would have directed him to a different note. - - Leave target uncertain of our goals / intent: - - - to hinder target's counterdeception effort. - - - so we can claim success later by switching goals, no matter how things turn out ('multiple outs'). - - - We perform random process, observes result, & challenges target to duplicate the event. - - - If an experiment shows 'worse than chance' results, claim target prove the independent variable (which actually has no effect) has an effect in the opposite direction. Some experimenters have erroneously claimed that an experiment showing fewer ESP hits than expected by chance demonstrates involuntary, counterproductive psychic powers.
8.8.6.A - - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of our characteristics and capabilities. Suitors may feign wealth. Uri Geller claims to have genuine psychic powers.
8.8.6.A.a - - Make target believe we possess particular characteristics & capabilities. -
8.8.6.A.a.aa - - Simulate qualifications or power (e.g., capitalize on target's awe of a position or title). -
8.8.6.A.a.bb - - Make target believe we possess special information sources. (Mentalists' methods include cold reading techniques such as inducing target to tell us information without realizing or remembering he has done so, and inducing target to fit generalities to himself (see oddmatches).) -
8.8.6.A.b - - Withhold information about our identity. -
8.8.6.A.c - - Establish in target's mind early a legitimate cover for our activities. Shopper shoplifts and then requests a refund for the product. If he fails to get it, he takes the product and leaves.
8.8.6.A.d - - Make deliberate errors to imply lesser capability. A psychic may make deliberate errors or have deliberate failures to heighten the effect when he succeeds.
8.8.6.A.e - - Possess, unknown to target, particular characteristics & capabilities. -
8.8.6.A.e.aa - - Secretly acquire capability. (e.g., by contriving a special gimmick; or by deriving pertinent info from a complement set.). Especially, capability to discover, steal, organize, or alter information or material. (E.g., hidden miniature transmitters & sensors.) (Mentalists' methods include those for message reading, cold reading, code systems, covert employment of third parties, rapid calculation, sightless vision.) -
8.8.6.A.e.bb - - Induce target to make relevant a capability we secretly possess (e.g., force target to utilize particular information). (Methods include mentalists' techniques for forcing choices.) -
8.8.6.A.e.cc - - Utilize common characteristics or capabilities of which target is unaware (e.g., mnemonic techniques, 'chemical magic' effects). -
8.8.6.B - - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of our method of operation. -
8.8.6.B.a - - 'Bundle of sticks' (ref: Diaconis): Induce target to systematically rule out all methods we might be using by using multiple methods sucessively to repeat the same effect (so weaknesses in one method are covered by the others.) -
8.8.7 COGNITIVE SYSTEM's IMAGE: K & BELIEFS ABOUT THE CURRENT SITUATION: World state, environment, context, significance of past events, processes currently operating. (See 1.8.8. EXEC Working Info). - - -
8.8.7.A - - Make target believe there is much more to know than there is. -
8.8.7.B - - Capitalize on interia in target's beliefs about world when world changes (e.g. change the world). -
8.8.7.C - - Induce or capitalize on differences between target's knowledge and the true state of the world (e.g., by preparing an area in advance for later entry or observation; using (unseen) gimmicks such as microphones, tracers, indicators, lubricants). Bugging a room.
8.8.7.D - - Induce / capitalize on inaccuracies in target's concept of the current situation. In a mail fraud scheme, one mails out a large number of predictions of an event with two possible outcomes. Half predict one result, half the other. Following the event, predictions are made for another event, but are sent only to those for whom the first prediction was correct. This pattern is repeated until a relatively small number of very-convinced potential victims remain for the next phase of the scam.
8.8.7.D.a - - Make deliberate errors to imply task is more difficult than it really is. A psychic may make deliberate errors or have deliberate failures to heighten the effect when he succeeds.
8.8.A - - Capitalize on target's lack of knowledge (ignorance). Many individuals have tried to sell 'perpetual motion machines' which run forever without additional energy input. Such salesmen capitalize on, among other things, people's ignorance of the physics which makes such devices impossible.