|United States Patent
June 23, 1992
Method and system for altering consciousness
A system for altering the states of human consciousness involves the
simultaneous application of multiple stimuli, preferable sounds, having
differing frequencies and wave forms. The relationship between the
frequencies of the several stimuli is exhibited by the equation
f=frequency of one stimulus;
g=frequency of the other stimuli of stimulus; and
n=a positive or negative integer which is different for each other
Gall; James (16621 E. Jacklin Dr., Fountain Hills, AZ 85268)
January 17, 1991|
|Current U.S. Class:
||600/28; 128/905 |
|Field of Search:
References Cited [Referenced By]
U.S. Patent Documents
|3762396||Oct., 1973||Ballentine et al.||600/26.
|4227516||Oct., 1980||Meland et al.||600/28.
Primary Examiner: Kamm; William E.
Assistant Examiner: Lacyk; J. P.
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Cahill, Sutton & Thomas
What is claimed is:
1. A method of altering the state of consciousness of a subject comprising
subjecting the subject to multiple stimuli of different frequencies having
their relationship expressed by the equation:
f=the frequency of a stimulus;
g=the frequency of each of the other stimuli or stimulus; and
n=a positive or negative integer which is different for each other stimuli.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the stimuli are aural.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein each of said stimuli has a wave form
different from the other stimuli.
4. The method of claim 2, wherein each of said stimuli has a wave form
differing from the other stimuli.
This invention is concerned with the application of stimuli to a human
subject to induce different states of consciousness.
It is well accepted in scientific circles that there is a correlation
between the electroencephalographic wave rhythms exhibited by the brain of
a human and the state of consciousness of that being. Rhythms customarily
found in the normal human adult when he is relaxed and his eyes closed
have a pulse frequency in the seven-fourteen Hz. range and have come to be
identified as "alpha" rhythms. Similarly, when a person is aroused and
anxious, the rhythms exhibited fall in the 14-28 Hz. range and are known
as "beta" rhythms. A normal person in sleep exhibits "delta" rhythms in
the 1.75-3.5 Hz. ranqe. Other brain wave rhythms which have been
identified by researchers as being associated with various normal and
abnormal states of consciousness are: "theta", 3.5-7.0 Hz. and "gamma",
28-56 Hz. Research by the applicant has led to the identification and
naming of three additional rhythms, namely: "omega", 0.875-1.75 Hz.;
"epsilon", 56-112 Hz.; and "zeta", 112-224 Hz.
Researchers have devised a variety of systems for stimulating the brain to
exhibit specific brain wave rhythms and thereby alter the state of
consciousness of the individual subject. Most of these efforts have been
aimed at inducing an alpha, or relaxed, brain wave rhythm or a delta, or
sleep, brain wave rhythm.
E.W. Ballentine and B.C. Gindes, in their U.S. Pat. No. 3,762,396, granted
Oct. 2, 1973, for "Method and Apparatus for Inducing Sleep by Applying
Electrical Pulses to Plural Portions of the Head", disclose a system for
inducing sleep, treating psychosomatic disorders, and aiding the induction
of hypnosis. With this system, the patient is subjected to three stimuli.
The first stimulus is electrical current pulses having a frequency of 8-10
CPS applied by electrodes to the back of the head. A second stimulus of
electrical current pulses having a frequency four times the frequency of
the first stimulus is applied to the optic nerve through electrodes on the
forehead. The third stimulus is a sound signal produced by the first
stimulus and applied to the patient via sound attenuating chambers in
order to isolate the patient from a noisy environment.
U.S. Pat. No. 3,576,185 was granted Apr. 27, 1971, to H. Shulz for
"Sleep-Inducing Method and Arrangement Using Modulated Sound and Light".
This patent describes an apparatus and a method for inducing sleep by
directing at the subject two sound signals in the range of 40-80 Hz., free
of overtones and amplitude modulated between the perceivable minimum and a
perceivable maximum. The two signals differ in frequency by approximately
0.5-2 Hz. Optical stimuli may also be used.
K. Masaki in his U.S. Pat. No. 4,834,701, granted May 30, 1989, for
"Apparatus for Inducing Frequency Reduction in Brain Wave" states his
objective to be the reduction of beta-rhythm into alpha-rhythm as well as
to retain alpha-rhythm. The subject is subjected to two sound signals
which are each higher in frequency than 4-16 Hz. But are different and
produce a beat signal which is within the 4-16 Hz. range. It is
represented that the subject exhibits improve ability in learning,
researching and inventing.
B.C. Gindes also teamed with B.C. Meland to obtain U.S. Pat. No. 4,227,516,
granted Oct. 14, 1980, for "Apparatus for Electrophysiological
Stimulation". This patent discloses apparatus for stimulating the effects
of brain wave activity in one of the delta, theta, alpha, and beta brain
wave frequency ranges. A first wave is generated in a frequency range
above the brain wave ranges. This first wave is then modulated by a second
wave having a frequency within one of the brain wave frequencies. The
modulated first waves are applied to the subject by means of electrodes on
the forehead. The second wave may also be applied by sound through
headphones. A third wave in a range 150-600 Hz. may be modulated by the
second wave and the modulated tone that is produced applied to headphones
worn by the subject. The system is represented as being able to, among
other things, induce sleep, induce a hypnotic state, produce heightened
awareness and increase the ability of a person to concentrate.
Each of the systems disclosed in these prior patents require that fairly
complex apparatus be directly associated with the subject. And the systems
of the two Gindes, et.al. patents hamper useful activity of the subject by
the requirement that the subject be attached to electrodes and earphones.
There continues to be a need for a system for inducing brain wave rhythms
which is inexpensive and easy to use from the subject's point of view.
DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
This invention contemplates utilizing a plurality of brain wave rhythm
stimuli simultaneously with each stimulus having a specific frequency
relationship with every other stimulus That relationship is expressed in
the following equation:
when f is the frequency of one stimulus, g is the corresponding frequency
for each of the other stimulus or stimuli and n is a positive or negative
integer. Although visual and electrical current stimuli can be employed in
the system of this invention, aural stimuli are preferred. The latter can
be recorded on small, convenient tape or disc records and played back by
the subject on an inexpensive portable player.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The invention is described in greater detail hereinafter by reference to
the accompanying drawings, wherein:
FIG. 1 is a graphic presentation of the various types of brain wave rhythms
with which this invention is concerned;
FIG. 2 illustrates graphically how a plurality of brain wave stimuli are
combined to produce a brain wave rhythm according to the invention;
FIG. 3 is a block diagram of brain wave rhythm stimuli recording apparatus
employed in the invention; and
FIG. 4 is a block diagram of brain wave rhythm stimuli playback apparatus
employed in the invention.
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
Referring particularly to FIG. 1, depicted there are the several types, or
ranges, of brain wave rhythms for which stimuli can be selected and
utilized in accordance with this invention. It has been recognized that
the human brain tends to imitate or endeavor to duplicate the rhythm it is
subjected to via outside stimuli. For example, if the subject is subjected
to sound producing a beat in the range of 4-16 Hz. as proposed by the
Masaki patent identified above, the subject's brain is influenced to
exhibit a similar electroencephalographic wave rhythm giving the subject
an alpha state of consciousness.
Research has demonstrated that the subject need not be conscious of, i.e.
need not actually hear, an aural stimulus in order for the brain to detect
and seek to emulate and synchronize with that stimulus.
The discovery at the heart of the present invention is that a greater range
of altered consciousness can be achieved through the simultaneous
application of multiple stimuli possessing specific harmonic
relationships. In accordance with this invention, that relationship can be
f=frequency of one stimulus;
g=frequency of each other stimulus or stimuli; and
n=a plus or minus integer which is different for each other stimulus.
By way of example, if one stimulus, f, has a frequency of 10 Hz., the
frequencies, g, for the other stimuli must be selected from among the
following (all expressed in Hz.):
n g n g
-8 2.5 +1 11.892
-7 2.973 +2 14.142
-6 3.536 +3 16.818
-5 4.204 +4 20
-4 5 +5 23.784
-3 5.946 +6 28.284
-2 7.071 +7 33.636
-1 8.409 +8 40
From this table, it can be observed that the frequencies of the several
stimuli bear another relationship. And that relationship is that within an
octave (a range in which the frequency is doubled) there are but three
intermediate equally spaced frequencies. Stated somewhat differently, the
frequencies of two adjacent stimuli are spaced no more closely than
one-quarter of an octave.
Another desired characteristic of the multiple stimuli brain wave rhythm of
this invention is that each stimulus exhibit a discrete wave pattern
different from the wave pattern of the other stimuli or stimulus. FIG. 2
illustrates how three different aural stimuli are combined to produce a
sound from which the individual stimulus can be perceived and
distinguished by the subject's brain. This characteristic is believed to
be important in producing effective brain wave rhythms.
On the other hand, research has revealed that effective brain wave rhythm
inducement can be carried out regardless of the phase relationship between
the several stimuli. The stimuli frequencies need not be synchronized.
As mentioned previously, the application of multiple stimuli in accordance
with this invention induces brain wave rhythms offering a greater range of
altered consciousness than is achievable with prior systems. Improved
results can be obtained using only two or three stimuli, but more complex
states of consciousness can be induced utilizing as many as seven stimuli
spread across the entire range of brain wave rhythm types illustrated in
The simpler, two and three stimuli, brain wave rhythms of this invention
can be employed to improve sleep patterns, increase dream recall activity,
reduce stress, and enhance the subject's sense of well-being and
contentment. The more complex, multi-stimuli rhythms are more effective
than the simpler rhythms and are useful in inducing levels of
consciousness wherein the ability to work fast and perform complex tasks
is enhanced. These multi-stimuli rhythms are also useful in the reduction
of emotional distress associated with long-forgotten, traumatic events in
the subject's life.
FIGS. 3 and 4 illustrate the simple apparatus required to practice this
invention. Records of the brain wave stimuli are produced in a recorder 11
to which a plurality of oscillators 12 provide the selected frequencies
and wave forms for the individual stimuli. The records thus produced can
be played by a subject on a record player 13 having a speaker 14. The
frequencies employed here, namely in the range of about 0.1 Hz. to 200
Hz., can be reproduced by inexpensive record playing equipment. No
high-fidelity player is required.
This description of the invention has emphasized the use of aural stimuli,
but, as mentioned previously, the stimuli may take the form of light
energies for visual stimulation or eletrical current for direct tactile
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